As a student at a large land grant university, I'm curious about the history of the academic climate I live in.
Section 4 of the Morrill Act of 1862 states the following:
… each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.
In my mind, this translates to "This act is established for establishing a traditonal university (one which focuses on science and classical studies), with a particular focus teaching practical industrial classes in Ag and mechanics, which incorporates military teaching."
However, can someone tell me what the context and motivation for these aims were at this time in 1862?
This is discussed in the wikipedia entry for the Morrill Land-Grant Acts
For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges.
Michigan had already created one which would be the model:
For example, the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school",1 though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, known today as Michigan State University, which served as a model for the Morrill Act.2
These schools would give mid-western states, where agriculture was dominant, a boost in furthering education availability. Concerning the dominance of agriculture, here are some numbers:
Total population: 17,069,453; farm population; 9,012,000 (est.); farmers 69% of labor force
Total population: 23,191,786; farm population; 11,680,000 (est.); farmers 64% of labor force; Number of farms: 1,449,000; average acres: 203
Total population: 31,443,321; farm population: 15,141,000 (est.); farmers 58% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,044,000; average acres: 199
The context, the time of 1862, is what caused the inclusion of the military training clause to gain support and overcome earlier rejections:
Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862.
Historically Black land-grant universities are severely underfunded compared to their white counterparts. Hemp could change that.
Flickr / Florida A&M University
Today, in a second vote, the House passed its messy version of the farm bill. As this legislative skirmish gobbles up the headlines, remember that the Senate quietly passed its own version out of committee earlier this month—one that includes a plan to legalize hemp production.
If adopted, that plan would allocate funding for schools that want to conduct hemp research. With this new money, legislators could make huge progress in undoing more than a hundred years of inequality in the way land-grant universities are funded.
But it’s not there yet. As written, the Industrial Hemp Program doesn’t specify which schools can qualify for research funding. With a few strokes of the pen, however, legislators could make a tiny change to reserve that money for land-grant universities, a change that would be largely invisible to a casual observer. But for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), it could provide crucial support for chronically underfunded research programs. Through this pilot, there’s a real opportunity to start leveling the playing field for HBCUs that have had to jump through hoops since the 1890s to get the same funding their predominantly white counterparts receive automatically.
In 1890, the federal government created 19 HBCU land-grant institutions. These institutions were given money—not land—to establish their presence. Just like the 1862 institutions, they are required to get half their funding from sources other than the federal government. But unlike the 1862 schools, their home states aren’t required to comply with the dollar-for-dollar federal match. What often happens instead is that HBCUs have to come up with the 50-percent match themselves, while nearby 1862 universities receive guaranteed annual federal and state funding automatically.
It may seem like a small difference, but the end result is a large disparity in funding for HBCUs. Lincoln University in Missouri, for instance, has to move money around in its own budget to meet the 50-percent federal matching requirement, which it often falls short of. Between 2000 and 2017, Lincoln University received $103 million in federal funding. By contrast, just 31 miles down the road, another land-grant university—the University of Missouri-Columbia—received $234 million from the state in 2017 alone.
State hemp programs have already begun to close the funding gap in agricultural research at land-grant universities. Of the 37 states that have passed laws regarding industrial hemp, 12 are home to HBCUs and Native institutions classified as land-grant schools.
Most states with hemp laws have established pilot programs that include funding for university research. Some states have gone so far as to make sure that research money is designated for land-grant universities. In North Carolina, for example, the hemp law specifically states that research will be conducted in partnership with North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T University, which is a HBCU. And Florida cited the University of Florida and Florida A&M University, also a HBCU, as its primary research stations.
Kansas and Oklahoma passed their hemp pilot programs in April and included research funding for institutions like Langston University, a HBCU in Oklahoma, and Haskell Indian Nation University in Kansas. Unlike some of the other states, however, Oklahoma is allocating research dollars to any college or university with a minimum soil science curriculum, reducing the amount of funding open to Langston University, an institution created specifically for agricultural research.
The Industrial Hemp Program outlined in the current Senate Farm Bill would take precedence over existing state programs, leaving an opening for research funding to follow in the same separate-but-unequal model of the past. But the Senate has the opportunity to reserve the research funding for land-grant universities, providing crucial support for historically underfunded schools. Growing hemp can be a lucrative path for HBCUs and farmers of color. However, legislators continue to neglect the need to ensure equity in HBCU funding in the new farm bill.
Statement of Land Acknowledgment
The United States has achieved many great things, but it also has a complex history with dark and cruel periods, including the mistreatment of Native Americans and the taking of a great deal of their land.
After the country was founded, the federal government took a series of steps to use grants of land to promote westward expansion, education and economic development. This included the Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which facilitated the creation of a system of using land grants to fund local schools. A great deal of land was also sold or provided by the federal government to settlers.
This concept of using land was continued to raise funds for specific purposes. The Morrill Act of 1862 provided land to help fund a system of land-grant universities aimed at providing a higher education to a broader set of the public. Unquestionably, the history of land-grant universities and other public universities intersects with that of Native Americans and the taking of their lands. That is forever part of our nation’s story.
While the U.S. has charted an imperfect path, over time the nation has sought to find ways to improve. In 1994, APLU (then known as the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges) and others worked to have Congress designate more than two dozen tribal colleges as land-grant institutions. This provided a recognition of these key institutions and gave these tribal colleges access to new federal resources to support their work with students and the community. This did not make up for the past, but it did represent important progress.
The mission of public and land-grant universities is one of inclusiveness. Public and land-grant universities are designed to provide access to a high-quality, affordable education for individuals from all different backgrounds, including those who are Native American. They are also defined by their high-level research enterprises and community engagement activities. Their mission seeks to understand and provide solutions to the greatest challenges facing communities, states, the nation, and the world. Core to this is a commitment by public and land-grant universities to extend the benefits of the knowledge, research and problem solving across each state.
While we cannot change the past, public and land-grant universities have and will continue to be focused on building a better future for everyone. Public and land-grant universities have a responsibility to continue to provide opportunities for Native American students while working to appropriately and respectfully serve as ready and willing partners to help address community challenges and needs. And public and land-grant universities will share and continue to learn from the history of the Native Americans, whose lives, traditions, and cultures are inextricably linked to their own history and the diverse character of the United States.
The tripartite land-grant mission
Although the language of “transdisciplinarity” is relatively new, its practice has long been central to the land-grant mission. The land-grant model rests on three pillars: instruction, represented in the agricultural college vision of the Morrill Acts research, represented in the agricultural experiment stations and the Hatch Act, and extension, represented by the cooperative extension system and the Smith-Lever Act.
The Hatch Act established agricultural experiment stations at land-grant institutions to both conduct original research and “aid in acquiring and diffusing among the people of the United States useful and practical information” (Ferleger 1990). Expanding the educational mission of the experiment stations, the Smith-Lever Act established cooperative extension services, jointly funded by federal and state governments, with the aim of bringing scientific knowledge about agriculture and home economics out of the universities and into the country. Over the past century, extension services have placed agents in almost every US county and built networks of trust that link the land-grant institutions to the (primarily rural) community. These extension agents, land-grant faculty who are scientifically trained and embedded in their local communities, work closely with extension specialists, based at the land-grant institution, who lead research and education programs and serve as bridges between other land-grant faculty and the extension agents (Brugger and Crimmins 2015). Many other faculty in the agricultural schools of land-grant universities are also partially supported through cooperative extension or experiment station funds, expanding the pool of researchers involved.
While the three land-grant pillars map onto the tripartite mission of instruction, research, and service common to all modern research universities, they are all tinted by an externally focused, democratizing, and use-inspired mission, and all receive federal and state funding at an institutional level to support this mission. Though this mission can sometimes be obscured in twenty-first century land-grant universities, which in an environment of declining government support for public higher education have often come to resemble other research universities, in the land-grant ideal it is at the heart of the university. Integrating research, instruction, and action is not a novel “Fourth Purpose” (Bollinger 2019) it cross-cuts and integrates the three traditional purposes of research universities.
Cooperative extension services serve as boundary organizations that facilitate the integration of university scholarship and real-world problem-solving. Cash (2001) highlights the way this has worked to advance water management in Kansas and Nebraska. There, cooperative extension helps “negotiate the boundary between science and decision making,” while “exist[ing] between two distinct social worlds with definite responsibility and accountability to both sides of the boundary.” It also serves to coordinate across scales, bringing university researchers and extension specialists together with federal, state, and local actors to address a challenge that spans the three-state region hosting the Ogallala Aquifer.
The engagement enabled by cooperative extension strengthens the ability of the university to undertake usable research by enhancing the credibility, relevance, and legitimacy of the research through iterative researcher-stakeholder interactions (Cash 2001 Sarkki et al. 2015). As McDowell (2003) writes:
[S]ynergistic power derives from scholarship practiced where tests of workability and relevance are institutionalized—the power of engagement. Further synergy is generated when access to the knowledge is ensured for users who will find it useful in their lives. Some of the power from engagement and access to knowledge is intellectual by virtue of the contribution to both the quality and relevance of the science practiced. Other power is political, resulting from the engagement with users of the knowledge, the access they have to the scholarly product, and the usefulness of the new knowledge to them.
More than a century of sustained federal and state funding for the land-grant enterprise provides one qualitative indicator of the model’s success (McDowell 2003). Economically, the US agricultural knowledge system as a whole, of which the land-grant universities are key components, has historically had a rate of return on investment of about 20–40% (Alston and Pardey 1996 McDowell 2003). Econometric analysis finds that the initial designation of the land-grant colleges led to about 45% increases in population density and 60% increases in manufacturing productivity over the ensuing eighty years (Liu 2015). Such quantitative economic metrics, however, address just a narrow slice of the land-grant mission as Liberty Hyde Bailey, the founding dean of the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University, wrote in a 1907 address (quoted in Peters 2006a):
While the College of Agriculture is concerned directly with increasing the producing power of land, its activities cannot be limited narrowly to this field. It must stand broadly for rural civilization…. The task before the colleges of agriculture is nothing less than to direct and to aid in developing the entire rural civilization and this task places them within the realm of statesmanship.
Further complicating evaluation of the land-grant enterprise is the limited attention given to its most unique element, that of cooperative extension. Nonetheless, as McDowell (2003) writes, “The extension function is certainly a necessary if not sufficient condition to system success, and extension’s influence on the research agenda may go a long way in explaining the high productivity of the system.”
A brief history of university evolution: From ivory towers to innovation powerhouses
The purpose of higher education according to current consensus is defined by three distinct missions. First, and least controversially, universities must teach students. Second, they should conduct research. And, the so-called third “mission” — they should strive to positively impact their local communities and wider society.
What may not be so obvious is that these three goals chart the history of the western university model, with each evolving in sequence over decades. The establishments that began as training grounds for aristocratic young men in classical subjects are now open centres of learning and discovery, making active contributions to knowledge, the economy, and society. This feature on university innovation, looks at three crucial turning points in this journey.
Oxford and Cambridge: A Break from Tradition
Oxford is one of the most expensive places to live outside of London. Source: Shutterstock
The earliest European universities had no mandate to create new knowledge at all. Long before the scientific revolution, medieval universities evolved from Catholic cathedral schools and were intended principally to train clergymen.
By the 1300s, the rediscovered works of Aristotle and Roman law began to influence approaches to teaching, and the nascent university curriculum expanded to include the training of lawyers, civil servants, and physicians. Nevertheless, as halls of history and classical teaching, they sought to preserve and perpetuate accepted ideas.
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That doesn’t sound so innovative? Put simply, it wasn’t. Then, in the 18th century with the age of Enlightenment spreading across Europe, new thinkers began to challenge the status quo. In Britain, pioneers of the scientific method, including Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle at Oxford, and Issac Newton at Cambridge introduced experimentation and a host of new ideas at their respective institutions.
And the rest was history? Not quite. Newton dramatically altered the course of history while holding the prestigious post of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge University. But the wheels of change once turned slowly.
After Newton, many scientists worked to advance their own theories about nature, paying little thought to the wider implications. Any attempt to find commercial applications for scientific knowledge was considered a betrayal of the discipline. It was science for the sake of science.
Humboldt’s Revolution: The Modern University
Humboldt University Berlin. Under Wilhelm von Humboldt, the newly appointed Geheimer Staatsrat (trusted advisor) of education, the role of universities was completely reimagined. Source: S-F / Shutterstock
The UK was far from the only country grappling with the value of science in the 19th century. Over in mainland Europe, Germany sought to transform almost every aspect of government and the state after a catastrophic defeat at the hands of Napoleon’s armies in 1806. The resulting drive for modernisation saw sweeping reforms across the Prussian education system.
Was higher education included in the reforms? Absolutely. Under Wilhelm von Humboldt, the newly appointed Geheimer Staatsrat (trusted advisor) of education, the role of universities was completely reimagined.
As in the UK, German universities had historically been rooted in the dictation of classics. Humboldt sought to diversify these subjects by putting science at the heart of the curriculum. He argued that by the time a student reaches a university, the student “is no longer a pupil”, and the university teacher “is no longer a teacher.” Instead, students would develop their own understanding and contribute to the discovery of new knowledge through independent research.
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Sounds close to a modern university. Indeed it does. Humboldt’s approach fundamentally changed higher education from further schooling to the active production of new ideas.
Humboldt was in office for just a year, but his radical model had a lasting legacy. The Prussian approach to education saw laboratories join lecture halls as the foundations of universities, and the concept went on to influence university systems across the west. The second mission — research — was firmly established.
Land-grant Colleges: A New Kind of Institution
World-renowned Cornell University is a US land-grant college. Source: Lewis Liu / Shutterstock
By the middle of the 19th century, research and innovation was rapidly becoming the focal point of university activity. But with limited funding and relative autonomy, most academics sought to pursue a narrow teaching agenda and their own research interests. The commercial and societal impacts of a scholar’s research were rarely considered a priority, and private companies were completely frozen out. It took an entirely new breed of university to challenge the status quo.
In 1862, within the throes of civil war, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law an act that transformed higher education in the USA. The Morrill Land-Grant Act enabled the foundation of new academic institutions across the US to provide tutelage in the practical subjects of agriculture and the “mechanic arts”, with a foundation in science.
Vetoed several years before by Lincoln’s predecessor, the Act act finally came to pass thanks to an amendment stipulating that military training be provided for all students.
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What did the act achieve? The legislature had two main functions: it allocated federal land to states as an endowment for the establishment of new universities, and it created the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to conduct and disseminate centralised research between the new institutions.
Over time, this established a gossamer web connecting local producers and businesses to a common body of knowledge from the USDA — knowledge which could, in turn, be shaped by local conditions and ideas within the states. This network meant that for the first time, academic research could be directed according to community needs.
Why the focus on agriculture? At a time of rapid population growth and increasing food demand, old farming practices were having a detrimental effect on productivity and the land itself. In some cases, the impact of old techniques was catastrophic. Monocropping had left farms and entire communities vulnerable to famine the second half of the century saw devastating insect plagues across Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota, which wiped out swathes of crops and land.
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How did the new universities help? Through annual events known as “farmers institutes”, the land-grant colleges could provide local farmworkers with practical, informal lectures on new techniques. Although, despite the need for change, many farmers at the time baulked at the idea of “book farming”. The hands-on, guided learning of the kind being offered by the new university system proved much more appealing.
Sounds like a roaring success. Indeed!
The sheer demand for new insights and techniques from local farmers necessitated something altogether more ambitious. Beginning in Iowa in 1903, a new system of permanent, co-operative farms were created to conduct experiments away from campuses. Local farmers agreed to provide the land, funding, and labour for the project, and college academics would run the farms, the experiments and the tuition.
Where are we now with university innovation?
Academics in institutions around the world are now increasingly turning towards technology transfer. Source: Eddie Kopp / Unsplash
Land-grant institutions in the USA were among the first to consider not just the discovery of knowledge, but the transfer of knowledge out of the university for the benefit of society.
Academics in institutions around the world are now increasingly turning towards technology transfer, knowledge exchange, and research commercialisation to ensure that their work can change lives for the better. But what’s more, these life-altering inventions not only solve major challenges faced in the 21st century, they also create new products and markets worth untold value to the national and global economies. Thus, the question of who benefits financially from these university innovation (and by how much!) arose.
Universities’ individual IP policies are now designed to address this question. For example, in the United States, the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 gave universities (and other non-profit institutions) full ownership of inventions created by the academics they employ.
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This was a departure from a system in which the US federal government, as the ultimate funding body, held rights to all IP generated by academic activity. This means that now, universities in the US (and most in the UK) treat intellectual property created by university employees to be owned by the university.
In other countries, and in some UK institutions, universities take an “inventor owns” approach, in which the lead academics are responsible for commercialising their own research. This includes some universities in Canada — for example, the University of Waterloo — and all universities in Sweden. In this situation, the majority, or in some cases 100 percent, of the ownership of the invention is assigned to the researcher.
The jury is still out on which approach (university or inventor-owned) generates the most social impact from university research and innovation, but the way that a university chooses to approach their IP policy can affect everything from their ability to attract entrepreneurially-minded researchers, to how much they invest in or prioritise a Technology Transfer Office.
Regardless of how the details shake out, the pervasiveness of IP policies shows that the emergence of a fourth, financially-focused mission of higher education may be underway.
Land Grant Colleges in AlabamaJustin Smith Morrill Convinced that the United States was falling behind Europe in agricultural production and education, Vermont congressman Justin Smith Morrill proposed to the U.S. Congress, in an 1857 bill, that the federal government provide a means for the states to fund educational institutions to foster learning and research in agriculture and the mechanical arts. Congress approved Morrill's bill in 1858, but it was vetoed by Pres. James Buchanan. Four years later, under new Pres. Abraham Lincoln, Morrill reintroduced the bill with an added proviso that military education be included in the new curriculum. Lincoln, unfettered by Buchanan's constitutional reservations, signed the Morrill Act, as it came to be known, in July 1862. The act granted each state 30,000 acres of public land, to be chosen by the states, within the state borders for each representative and senator it had serving in Congress. The states could then sell the land and use the proceeds to establish colleges or universities whose primary function centered on educating people in better agricultural practices, "mechanical arts" (today called engineering), and military science. Enacted during the Civil War, the Morrill Act initially excluded those states in rebellion against the Union. Old Main The East Alabama Male College had been struggling with financial difficulties since 1859 and even closed down during the Civil War. Alabama Methodists voted to donate the school to the state, and the townspeople of Auburn offered 100 acres if the legislature established a land-grant program at the school. Sheldon Toomer, who represented Lee County in the state House of Representatives, and state senator J. L. Pennington of Lee County guided a bill through the legislature that made the former East Alabama Male College the site of the state's land-grant college in 1872. Officials then re-christened the institution the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama. It was renamed the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1899 and finally Auburn University in 1960. William Hooper Councill Domestic Science Building During the 1871-1872 session of the Alabama state legislature, one member attempted to amend the Toomer-Pennington bill to have Auburn open its doors to African Americans. Not surprisingly, the legislature defeated the amendment, and Auburn remained segregated until 1964. Thus Alabama joined the ranks of its Jim Crow neighbors in chartering separate and unequal institutions of higher learning. In 1873, the legislature granted a charter to the African American Huntsville Normal and Industrial School, but with far less funding than the Agricultural and Mechanical College. The school began admitting students in 1875. Initially founded to train teachers as well as offer vocational instruction, congressional approval of the Morrill Act of 1890 enabled the Hunstville Normal School and other African American colleges to participate in the land-grant program. The Alabama legislature then sanctioned it as the African American land-grant institution in 1891. It moved to nearby Normal and underwent several name changes before the state designated it Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1969. Like Auburn, Alabama A&M has expanded its course offerings beyond instruction in agriculture and engineering and by 1939 began offering four-year baccalaureate programs that eventually included programs in the liberal arts. Originally known as the Negro Normal School in Tuskegee, Tuskegee Institute received its charter from the state in 1881. It was granted independence from the state by the Alabama Legislature in 1892 and achieved its land-grant status in 1899. Commissioners charged with finding someone to head the school recruited educator and statesman Booker T. Washington of Virginia. In addition Carnegie Library at Tuskegee Institute, ca. 1906 to his innovative educational programs at Tuskegee, Washington instituted extension efforts and annual conferences that brought African American farmers to the campus to study better agricultural practices. There, they could learn from renowned inventor and agricultural scientist George Washington Carver, among others. Tuskegee also brought education out to farmers through its traveling classroom, the Movable School. Tuskegee proved so successful in agricultural education that white farmers participated in some of the demonstration programs. Since that time, Tuskegee has added programs in veterinary medicine, engineering, and the liberal arts. Alabama A&M University All three of Alabama's land-grant universities have lived up to the mission envisioned by Justin Smith Morrill and continue to carry it out today. Alabama A&M and Auburn presently manage the state's cooperative extension system, which places agriculture extension agents in each county to assist farmers in improving production. Auburn has become a leader in engineering, especially in the field of aerospace engineering, and has produced numerous scientists and astronauts, and the school is also at the forefront of research and development in agriculture, animal sciences, and many other areas. Tuskegee University is an important center for veterinary sciences and other academic areas relating to agriculture.
Why is the Morrill Act important to Texas A&M today?
More than 150 years later, the Morrill Act has proven to be a transformative piece of legislation not just for Texas A&M, but for the other universities that were founded under the original 1862 act and the 1890 act, which founded many historically black colleges and universities (HBCU).
The act is such an integral part of Texas A&M’s DNA that even though the Texas Legislature changed the name of the university from the Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1965, the ‘A’ and ‘M’ in Texas A&M are a symbolic homage to the university’s land-grant roots.
The land-grant designation laid the foundation for Texas A&M to become one of the first land-, sea- and space-grant universities by 1989 – a distinction it shares with only 16 other schools.
The Land-Grant Heritage of SDSU
The land-grant heritage of South Dakota State University, which began with a college founded in 1881, originates from local and national legislation dating back to 1862. The Morrill Act, passed by Congress and signed by President Abraham Lincoln in July of that year, embodied a revolutionary idea in higher education. The legislation created a new type of educational institution, one to give instruction in both liberal and practical arts to people in all parts of the country who needed to work for a living. In 1889, when South Dakota achieved statehood, Congress, acting under the Morrill Act of 1862, granted 160,000 acres of land for the use and support of the “agricultural college.” By accepting this land allocation, the State had to designate the Agricultural College as a land-grant college.
In 1887, the Hatch Act established Agricultural Experiment Stations at land-grant colleges throughout the United States to conduct research and disseminate information relating to agriculture and home economics. In 1914, the Smith-Lever Act formally established the Cooperative Extension Service to extend the research and knowledge of land-grant colleges and current agricultural and homemaking information to the people of each state. In 1917, the Smith-Hughes Act, provided for the preparation of teachers for secondary-school level instruction in
agriculture, industrial arts, and home economics. By 1928 South Dakota State College had been chosen to conduct this program. In 1994 the Federal Government granted 29 tribal college (four in South Dakota) land-grant status. Tribal land-grant college extension programs are conducted in cooperation with the traditional (1862) land-grant institutions therefore, SDSU has an on-going relationship with the tribal colleges through the land-grant linkage. As of 1923 South Dakota State College had an instructional program organized under five divisions: Agriculture, Engineering, General Science, Home Economics, and Pharmacy. Thirty years later, General Science was renamed the Division of Science and Applied Arts. The Nursing Division was created in 1956. The following year all graduate work was organized into the Graduate Division.
Status as a university began when the South Dakota Legislature changed the name of South Dakota State College to South Dakota State University on July 1, 1964. At that time the following colleges were created: Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Arts and Science, Engineering, Home Economics, Nursing, Pharmacy, and the Graduate School. In 1965 Ph.D. programs were established in Agronomy, Agricultural Economics (later discontinued), Animal Science, and Plant Pathology (later discontinued). A decade later, in 1974, the College of General Registration was established to provide assistance to student undecided about a major, preprofessional students,
or students who wanted a one or two year general studies program. In 1975 the Department of Education was reorganized and renamed the Division of Education. In 1989 the Division of Education was granted college status. The College of Home Economics was renamed the College of Family and Consumer Affairs.
Land-Grant Colleges and Universities
Learn about the partners who collaborate with NIFA to address critical issues related to agriculture, food, the environment, and communities.
Alabama A&M University, Normal
Auburn University, Auburn
Tuskegee University, Tuskegee
Ilisagvik College, Barrow
University of Alaska, Fairbanks
American Samoa Community College, Pago Pago
Diné College, Tsaile
University of Arizona, Tuscon
Tohono O'odham Community College, Sells
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff
D-Q University, (Davis vicinity)
University of California System-Oakland as Headquarters, Oakland
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Delaware State University, Dover
University of Delaware, Newark
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
University of the District of Columbia, Washington
Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
University of Florida, Gainesville
Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley
University of Georgia, Athens
University of Guam, Mangilao
University of Hawaii, Honolulu
University of Idaho, Moscow
University of Illinois, Urbana
Purdue University, West Lafayette
Iowa State University, Ames
Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence
Kansas State University, Manhattan
Kentucky State University, Frankfort
University of Kentucky, Lexington
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge
University of Maine, Orono
University of Maryland, College Park
University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Bay Mills Community College, Brimely
Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College, Baraga
Michigan State University, East Lansing
Saginaw Chippewa Tribal College, Mount Pleasant
College of Micronesia, Kolonia, Pohnpei
Fond du Lac Tribal & Community College, Cloquet
Leech Lake Tribal College, Cass Lake
Red Lake Nation College, Red Lake
University of Minnesota, St. Paul
White Earth Tribal and Community College, Mahnomen
Alcorn State University, Lorman
Mississippi State University, Starkville
Blackfeet Community College, Browning
Chief Dull Knife College, Lame Deer
Aaniiih Nakoda College, Harlem
Fort Peck Community College, Poplar
Little Big Horn College, Crow Agency
Montana State University, Bozeman
Salish Kootenai College, Pablo
Stone Child College, Box Elder
Little Priest Tribal College, Winnebago
Nebraska Indian Community College, Winnebago
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Nevada, Reno
University of New Hampshire, Durham
Rutgers University, New Brunswick
Navajo Technical University, Crownpoint
Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development, Santa Fe
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces
Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute, Albuquerque
Cornell University, Ithaca
North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro
North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Cankdeska Cikana Community College, Fort Totten
Fort Berthold Community College, New Town
North Dakota State University, Fargo
Sitting Bull College, Fort Yates
Turtle Mountain Community College, Belcourt
United Tribes Technical College, Bismarck
Northern Marianas College, Saipan
Central State University, Wilberforce
Ohio State University, Columbus
College of the Muscogee Nation, Okmulgee
Langston University, Langston
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater
Oregon State University, Corvallis
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
University of Rhode Island, Kingston
Clemson University, Clemson
South Carolina State University, Orangeburg
Oglala Lakota College, Kyle
Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud
Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, Sisseton
South Dakota State University, Brookings
Tennessee State University, Nashville
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View
Texas A&M University, College Station
Utah State University, Logan
University of Vermont, Burlington
University of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg
Virginia State University, Petersburg
Northwest Indian College, Bellingham
Washington State University, Pullman
West Virginia State University, Institute
West Virginia University, Morgantown
College of Menominee Nation, Keshena
Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa Community College, Hayward
University of Wisconsin, Madison
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State aid to the U.S. land-grant colleges
Published 1970 by Argus and Patriot in Montpelier, Vt .
Written in English
- University of Vermont.,
- School lands -- United States.,
- Education and state -- United States.,
- Education -- United States -- Finance.
Microfiche. Chicago : Library Resources, 1970. 1 microfiche 8 x 13 cm. (Library of American civilization LAC 40011)
|Statement||by Justin S. Morrill.|
|Series||Library of American civilization -- LAC 40011.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||24|
Cornell University Press fosters a culture of broad and sustained inquiry through the publication of scholarship that is engaged, influential, and of lasting significance. This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of , and
A land-grant university is an institution of higher education designated by a state to receive the benefits of the federal Morrill Acts of and The Morrill Act stated that the purpose of land-grant colleges was “to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts in order to promote the. Dr G F Zook demands local control, s, Negro colls conf. STATE AID SOUGHT IN NEGRO COLLEGES Land-Grant Institutions Told to Approach Legislatures With Plans for Wise Spending.
There is one land-grant institution in every state and territory of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia. Certain states have more than one land-grant institution as a result of the second Morrill Act, and some western and plains states have several because of land-grant tribal colleges. The first publication, Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: A Profile, released in September , was designed to lay an empirical base for the committee's deliberations and to contribute to public understanding and discussion of the college of agriculture system.
Summary and compilation of school district statements concerning plans to use the constitutionally mandated one percent increase in state funding for public schools
A social & demographic examination of fishing participation
Journal of religion in Africa
Governors Recreation Resource Advisory Committee 1984 final report
Test wells, Titaluk and Knifeblade areas, Alaska
Living simply through the day
The ports of San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Richmond, upper San Francisco Bay, Santa Cruz and Monterey, California.
Chaparral conversion potential in Arizona.
Miles Davis - Kind of Blue
Response and non-response to a postal questionnaire
Everything But the Burden
Crofts and farms in the Hebrides
State aid to the U.S. land-grant colleges Download PDF EPUB FB2
The final part shows that the land-grant mission is alive and well in university colleges of agriculture and, in fact, is inherent to their identity. Including some of the best minds the field has to offer, this volume follows in the fine tradition of past books in Transaction’s Perspectives on the History of Higher Education : Routledge.
Combining extensive research with Gee’s own decades of leadership experience, Land-Grant Universities for the Future argues that these schools are the engine of higher education in America―and perhaps democracy’s best hope. This book should be of great interest to faculty members and students, as well as those parents, legislators 5/5(8).
Get this from a library. State aid to the U.S. land-grant colleges: an address in behalf of the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, delivered in the hall of the House of Representatives, at Montpelier, Octo [Justin Smith Morrill]. The book is Land-Grant Universities for the Future: Higher Education for the Public Good (Johns Hopkins University Press).
The authors are E. Gordon Gee, the president of West Virginia University, and Stephen M. Gavazzi, a professor of human development and family science at Ohio State University, where Gee was formerly president.
This book reviews the legislative history of the land grant system from its establishment in to the act conferring land grant status on Native American colleges.
It describes trends that have shaped agriculture and agricultural education over the decades--the shift of labor from farm to factory, reasons for and effects of increased productivity and specialization, the rise of the corporate farm, and.
Land-grant universities were created to serve the communities they were built in. We need to get back to a focus on community needs.
We talk in the book about being land-grant fierce, and to us that means in part finding what it is that connects the university to the community and not being afraid to meet the needs of the people from where you live.
Faculty salaries in land-grant colleges and state universities Unknown Binding – January 1, See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions The Amazon Book ReviewManufacturer: U.S. Government Printing Office. This chapter introduces the second of the land grant colleges' functions, that of agricultural research.
The colleges are the state-based component of the public agricultural research system the federal component includes the intramural science agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Since their inception inthe U.S. land grant colleges have evolved to become the training ground for the nation's and the world's agriculturists.
In this book, the committee examines the future of the colleges of agriculture in light of changing national priorities for the agricultural, food, and natural resource system. Pages in category "Land-grant universities and colleges" The following 87 pages are in this category, out of 87 total.
This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). state funding for public colleges, tuition, and state student aid using data from the U.S. Department of Education for all public sector colleges from fiscal years throughthe most recent data available at the time of this study.
GAO also identified academic studies on state higher education policies and affordability publishedFile Size: KB. Land-grant universities, American institutions of higher learning that were established under the first Morrill Act ().
This act was passed by the U.S. Congress and was named for the act’s sponsor, Vermont congressman Justin S. Morrill. Under the provisions of the act, each state was granted. To amend the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a grant program under which the Secretary will award $19, of grant funding to the 19 institutions ($1, to each institution), such as Tuskegee University in Alabama, Prairie View A&M University of Texas, Fort Valley State University of Georgia.
The National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) is an organization of more than public universities, land-grant colleges, and state university systems.
Within this constituency, seventy-five are land-grant colleges, including seventeen historically black public colleges and universities, and twenty-eight are. “Let Us Now Praise Famous Men” Justin S. Morrill & Abraham Lincoln. Morrill introduced a bill in the U.S.
Senate in that would allow a cash-poor but land-rich federal government to appropriate public land for aid to state colleges and “promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes.”.
Black Land-Grant Colleges: Discrimination as Public Policy. Schuck, Peter H. Saturday Review (New York ), 55, 26,Jun 24 As unequal as state aid to black land-grant colleges tends to be, federal assistance is far more unequal, and the gap continues to widen the U.S.
Department of Agriculture is primarily to blame. Cited by: 2. Except as provided in paragraph (2), Institutions shall be considered land-grant colleges established for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts in accordance with the provisions of the Act of July 2, (12 Stat.
7 U.S.C. et seq.) (commonly known as the First Morrill Act). Inthis college was renamed "Virginia State College for Negroes". It was designated one of Virginia's land grant colleges in response to the Amendments to the Morrill Act inwhich required that the states either open their land-grant colleges to all races, or else establish separate land-grant schools for African-Americans.
Against this background of culturally homogenous commentary on the universities comes a welcome intervention in the form of a new book, Land-Grant Universities for the Future: Higher Education for Author: Christian Alejandro Gonzalez. A land-grant university is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of and Signed by Abraham Lincoln, the first Morrill Act began to fund educational institutions by granting federally controlled land to the states for them to sell, to raise funds, to establish and endow "land-grant" colleges.
The mission of these institutions as. Gee is working on a book with Ohio State University Professor Stephen Gavazzi, for which the two interviewed 27 land-grant leaders (anonymously, which they said was like giving the presidents and Author: Benjamin Wermund.
Most nations have key years in their history when a major change in the law or an event altered the university landscape for ever. In the US, few would argue against – when the Morrill Land-Grant Act led to the founding of many of the country’s best-known universities –.
That year, Idaho became a state and received its agricultural college grant — a haul worth $ million when adjusted for inflation that it assigned to the University of Idaho.