History Podcasts

Review: Volume 56 - First World War

Review: Volume 56 - First World War

During the opening four months of the First World War no fewer than forty-six soldiers from the British and Commonwealth armies were awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry. In a series of biographies, Gerald Gliddon examines the men and the dramatic events that led to the award of this most coveted of medals and explores the post-war experiences of those who survived. These men, ordinary soldiers from widely differing social backgrounds, acted with valour above and beyond the call of duty. Their stories and experiences offer a fresh perspective on the opening stages of the 'war to end wars'.

Review: Volume 56 - First World War - History

History Powerpoint Presentations free to download. Free History PowerPoint presentations. Great for KS1 KS2 KS3 KS4 and post 16 A level lessonplans, K-12 and more. Use and alter these presentations freely or any power point template used in this presentations site for other teachers. If you have any powerpoints then please consider submitting them for other teachers to download too. It's all about sharing and helping others. Need a free powerpoint viewer. Click here.

To Save files you might have to 'right click' with the mouse and select 'save target as' and save to disk.

Browse the entire collection by category using the links below

Join the worldofteaching community website (This will be expanding rapidly! Meet other individuals with similar interests, share knowledge, visit discussion forums, work together to build better education for all)

Explore the OLL Collection: Images of Liberty and Power Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

This illustrated essay explores some images of "liberty" and "industry" from Diderot’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) (1751-1772). They have been taken from Liberty Fund’s anthology of articles, Encyclopedic Liberty: Political Articles in the Dictionary of Diderot an.

Review: Volume 56 - First World War - History

The Journal of American History presents interviews with authors of articles in the journal.

Guest host Dr. Mireya Loza, Assistant Professor in Food Studies at New York University, interviews Dr. Verónica Martínez-Matsuda Assistant Professor of Labor Relations, Law, and History at Cornell University, about her article "For Labor and Democracy: The Farm Security Administration's Competing Visions for Farm Workers' Socioeconomic Reform and Civil Rights in the 1940s", which appears in the September 2019 issue of the JAH.

Process is the blog of the Organization of American Historians, The Journal of American History, and The American Historian, dedicated to exploring the process of doing history and the multifaceted ways of engaging with the U.S. past.

Connect with the Organization of American Historians on Facebook!

Organization of American Historians

Founded in 1907, the Organization of American Historians (OAH) is the largest professional society dedicated to the teaching and study of American history. More information.

Read the latest virtual issue entitled 'Black Women Authors in the Journal of American History'

Past Forward: Articles from The Journal of American History selects some of the best articles from The Journal of American History to meet the needs of students and teachers of the U.S. history survey.

Information on Volume 1: From Colonial Foundations to the Civil War. Information on Volume 2: From the Civil War to Present.

Register to receive table of contents email alerts as soon as new issues of Journal of American History are published online.

The International History of the US Suffrage Movement

Figure 1. Sarah Parker Remond, ca. 1865. This portrait was taken while Remond was in England, the year before she added her name to John Stuart Mill’s petition for woman suffrage.

Albumen print, Peabody Essex Museum, Gift of Miss Cecelia R. Babcock, PH322. Courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA.

The history of the US woman suffrage movement is usually told as a national one. It begins with the 1848 Seneca Falls convention follows numerous state campaigns, court battles, and petitions to Congress and culminates in the marches and protests that led to the Nineteenth Amendment. This narrative, however, overlooks how profoundly international the struggle was from the start. Suffragists from the United States and other parts of the world collaborated across national borders. They wrote to each other shared strategies and encouragement and spearheaded international organizations, conferences, and publications that in turn spread information and ideas. Many were internationalist, understanding the right to vote as a global goal.

Enlightenment concepts, socialism, and the abolitionist movement helped US suffragists universalize women’s rights long before Seneca Falls. They drew their inspiration not only from the American Revolution, but from the French and Haitian Revolutions, and later from the Mexican and Russian Revolutions. Many were immigrants who brought ideas from their homelands. Others capitalized on the Spanish-American War and the First World War to underscore contradictions between the United States’ growing global power and its denial of woman suffrage. A number of women of color used the international stage to challenge US claims to democracy, not only in terms of women’s rights but also in terms of racism in the United States and in the suffrage movement itself. The complex international connections and strategies that suffragists cultivated reveal tensions in feminist organizing that reverberated in later movements and are instructive today.

These multiple, and sometimes conflicting, international strands worked in synergy, bolstering the suffrage cause and expanding the women’s rights agenda. The resources that women shared with each other across national borders allowed suffrage movements to overcome political marginalization and hostility in their own countries. [1] A radical challenge to power, the US movement for women’s voting rights required transnational support to thrive.

Abolitionism and the Transnational Origins of Women’s Rights
Although the American Revolution and Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), which circulated in the United States, activated discussion of women’s rights, it was the transatlantic crucible of abolitionism that truly galvanized the US women’s rights movement. [2] The antislavery movement, which Frederick Douglass called “peculiarly woman’s cause,” provided broad ideals of “liberty” as well as key political strategies that suffragists would use for the next fifty years—the mass petition, public speaking, and the boycott. Transatlantic networks of organizations, conferences, and publications drove abolitionism. Women in the United States looked to their British sisters, who in 1826 made the first formal demand for an immediate rather than gradual end to slavery.

Boston reformer and African American abolitionist Maria Stewart , one of the first US women to publicly call for women’s rights before a mixed-race and mixed-sex audience, embraced a diasporic vision of freedom when she asked in 1832, “How long shall the fair daughters of Africa be compelled to bury their minds and talents beneath a load of iron pots and kettles?” [3] Her vision of rights for African American women, specifically, in the face of economic marginalization, segregation, and slavery, drew upon universal rights that she found expressed not only in the US Constitution and Declaration of Independence but in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Haitian Revolution, the largest slave uprising, from 1791 to 1804. [4]

Figure 2. The WCTU’s global vision of suffrage, as well as the connections it drew between suffrage, domesticity, and temperance are illustrated in this cover of the Union Signal, the official organ of the US WCTU, March 17, 1921. The hostility that Stewart and other female abolitionists faced for overstepping boundaries of female propriety by speaking out in public threw into sharp relief that, as abolitionist Angelina Grimké put it, “the manumission of the slave and the elevation of the woman” should be indivisible goals. [5] At the 1837 First Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, an interracial group of two hundred women called for women’s rights. When Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Lucretia Mott , and other female delegates were excluded from the 1840 World Antislavery Congress in London, Stanton hatched the idea for a separate women’s rights convention.

The resulting 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and its demands for women’s rights were only possible because of abolitionists’ groundwork and the broad meanings of emancipation flourishing in the United States and in Europe, where revolutions had broken out that year. Stanton’s idea to include the right to vote in the convention’s Declaration of Sentiments was directly inspired by calls for universal suffrage made by British Chartists, the first mass working-class movement in England. [6] Quaker minister and abolitionist Lucretia Mott explicitly connected the Declaration to the 1848 abolition of slavery in the French West Indies, opposition to the US war with Mexico, and Native American rights. She and Stanton also found models in the matrilineal communities of the Seneca people, in which women held political power. [7] The right to vote proved to be the convention’s most controversial demand, and abolitionist Frederick Douglass was one of its most avid proponents.

The right to vote became key to the many US women’s rights conventions that Seneca Falls set into motion, inspiring and drawing on the support of women in Europe and elsewhere, including immigrant women in the United States. In 1851, from Paris jail cells, revolutionary women’s rights activists cheered US women’s activism. In March 1852, German immigrant and socialist Mathilde Anneke started the first women’s rights journal in the United States published by a woman, the Deutsche Frauen-Zeitung. After the Prussian victory over Germany she had fled to the United States, where she became a friend of Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. [8] Polish-born immigrant and abolitionist Ernestine Rose expressed her global vision for suffrage in 1851: “We are not contending for the rights of women in New England, or of old England, but of the world.” [9]

Such ideas resonated with Sarah Parker Remond, whose life reflects the overlapping transnational abolitionist and woman suffrage movements. In 1832 she helped found the first female antislavery group in Salem, Massachusetts . In 1859, while on an antislavery speaking tour in England, Remond reported, “I have been received here as a sister by white women for the first time in my life. . . . I have received a sympathy I never was offered before.” [10] For Remond, transnational connections became a concrete way to escape racism in the United States. She settled permanently in Italy, where she became a physician. In 1866, Remond affixed her name to John Stuart Mill’s petition to the British Parliament for woman suffrage. [11] (Figure 1)

Figure 3. Teresa Villarreal, cover of El Obrero (San Antonio, TX), November 17, 1910. In 1909, Villareal started this publication to enlist women and men in the revolutionary cause and new social order. The Mexican Revolution and working-class demands infused her calls for woman suffrage in the US.

Courtesy of Arte Público Press, University of Houston, Houston, TX.

Transnational Organizing and “Global Sisterhood”
Transnational connections initiated by the nineteenth-century abolitionist movement only grew in the following decades. After construction of the first t ransatlantic telegraph lines in the 1860s, communications, travel, and transnational print culture helped produce the first international organizations for women’s rights that drew significantly on US women: the World’s Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), founded in 1884 by US temperance leader Frances Willard the International Council of Women (ICW), founded in 1888 by Stanton and Anthony the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA, later renamed the International Alliance of Women), founded in 1904 and presided over by Carrie Chapman Catt (then-president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association) and Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), founded by US social settlement worker Jane Addams in 1915. [12]

Alongside each organization’s particular focus—international arbitration, universal disarmament, temperance, married women’s civil rights, anti-trafficking of women, equal pay for equal work, among others—a global goal of women’s political equality drove them. [13] These organizations connected women across the lines of nation, culture, and language and had overlapping memberships. [14] They hosted international conferences, and they helped spearhead publications such as the IACW’s Jus Sufffragii and the ICW’s Bulletin, which shared information about suffrage organizing in Asia, Latin America, Europe, and other parts of the world.

Of the four, the WCTU inspired the most dramatic grassroots suffrage activism, becoming the largest women’s organization in the world, with over forty national affiliates. An outgrowth of the US Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1874), the WCTU argued that women could use their vote to promote temperance and end men’s alcohol-infused violence. The organization transformed the goal of woman suffrage into a legible and compelling one for large numbers of women. [15] Spearheading the first organized suffrage efforts in the white British colonies of South Africa, New Zealand, and South Australia, the WCTU was responsible for the world’s first national suffrage victory in New Zealand in 1893, and in Australia in 1902. [16] (Figure 2)

Although these groups spoke of “global sisterhood,” their memberships were predominantly Anglo-American and European, and their publications usually only published in French, English, and German, in spite of demands to expand beyond these languages from women in Spanish-speaking countries and other parts of the world. [17] These international groups generally marginalized or excluded, and in the WCTU’s case segregated, US women of color.

These groups often reflected what historians have called “imperial feminism”—a belief that white, Western women will “uplift” women in “uncivilized” parts of the world. [18] This logic went hand in hand with some suffrage efforts. WCTU missionaries in Hawai'i who sought to secure woman suffrage there in the 1890s, allied with white US business and military interests establishing imperial control over the island. [19] Suffragists also demanded the vote in the United States’ imperial acquisitions from the 1898 Spanish-American War—the Philippines , Puerto Rico , and Cuba—both as part of a civilizing mission and to force discussion of a federal suffrage amendment in the United States . [20] Meanwhile, while celebrating early suffrage victories within the western United States in the same period, most white suffragists overlooked the fact that these states denied the right to vote accorded native-born white women to many Asian American, Mexican American, and Native American women. [21]

African American suffragists powerfully critiqued Anglo-American dominance on the international stage and within the US suffrage movement as they made important contributions to it. They also continued to connect global ideals of “freedom” with local women’s rights issues, expanding the international agenda to address such goals as universal suffrage for men and women, anti-lynching, and education. Former abolitionist Frances Ellen Watkins Harper , a pivotal African American civil rights and women’s rights leader, spoke at the 1888 founding of the ICW and oversaw the formation of many “colored WCTU” groups that contributed to school suffrage victories in several states in the 1890s. [22] On a speaking tour in England, the anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells brought global attention to WCTU president Frances Willard’s failure to defend African American men lynched on false rape accusations. [23] Wells went on to found the most vital African American woman suffrage group in the country, the Alpha Suffrage Club, in Chicago, and at the 1913 suffrage March on Washington, she refused to be relegated to the back of the procession, reserved for African American women. In 1904, Mary Church Terrell , the first president of the National Association of Colored Women, spoke in fluent German at the ICW meeting in Berlin, pointing out that a global women’s rights agenda must include attention to Black women’s unequal access to many rights, including education and employment. Newspapers in Germany, France, Norway, and Austria lauded her speech. [24]

Figure 4. Starting in 1915, “America First” was a slogan used by those who wanted to keep the US out of WW I. In 1917, when this cartoon graced the cover of the National Woman’s Party organ, the Russian Revolution and its promise of equal rights for women became a lightning rod for US suffragists.

Nina Allender, “America First!/Russia First Universal Suffrage,” Suffragist, March 24, 1917. Courtesy of Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument, home of the historic National Woman’s Party, Washington, DC.

International Influences on the Modern Suffrage Movement
At the end of the nineteenth century, a more modern and militant suffrage internationalism emerged. A growing embrace of the term “feminism”—implying a movement that demanded women’s full autonomy—along with working women’s strong public presence, international socialism, and the Russian Revolution, contributed to the idea of a new womanhood breaking free from old constraints. [25]

International socialism had long upheld universal, direct, and equal suffrage as a demand, but in the 1890s, German socialist firebrand Clara Zetkin revived the goal, spearheading the inclusion of woman suffrage in the 1889 Second International in Paris. This gathering of socialist and labor parties from twenty countries in turn fostered vigorous women’s movements in Germany, France, and elsewhere in Europe. In Finland, socialist feminists and the Social Democratic Party were critical to the country’s, also Europe’s first, woman suffrage victory in 1906. [26]

Socialism, and the growing numbers of working women it inspired, breathed new life into the US suffrage movement. In 1909, women workers in New York demanded women’s right to vote, launching what became International Women’s Day. Over the next six years, working women exploded in labor militancy, viewing the vote as a tool against unjust working conditions and for what Polish-born labor organizer and suffragist Rose Schneiderman called “bread and roses.” The 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire that claimed the lives of 145 workers, most of whom were young, immigrant women, made suffrage more urgent. [27] Collaborations with middle-class reformers helped spread many of the tactics that suffragists later employed on a wider scale: mass meetings, marches, and open-air street speaking. [28]

Immigrants and women from throughout the Americas were key to these efforts, and to connecting suffrage to broad social justice goals. In cigar factories in Tampa, Florida , the Puerto Rican anti-imperialist, anarchist, and feminist Luisa Capetillo inspired African American, Cuban American, and Italian American women workers with calls for woman suffrage, and for free love, workers’ rights, and vegetarianism. [29] From Texas , Mexican-born feminist Teresa Villarreal, who had fled the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, supported the Mexican Revolution, the Socialist Party, and woman suffrage, publishing with her sister Andrea that state’s first feminist newspaper, La Mujer Moderna (The Modern Woman) and starting the publication El Obrero (The Worker). [30] (Figure 3) In 1911, after the First Mexican Congress in Laredo, Texas, journalist Jovita Idar praised woman suffrage in La Crónica (The Chronicle) connecting it to her longstanding demands for Mexican American civil rights. [31]

Socialist, working-class suffrage militancy in England also galvanized the British Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst. This group became the driving force in the British movement for nearly two decades, influencing militant suffrage activism around the world, including in China. [32] After the US suffragist Alice Paul , one of Pankhurst’s followers, was arrested in London in 1912, she helped organize the 1913 suffrage march in Washington, DC , and founded the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later renamed the National Woman’s Party (NWP), that focused on a federal constitutional suffrage amendment. Its sash of purple, white, and yellow was modeled on the British purple, white, and green one, and its confrontational suffrage strategies of civil disobedience and picketing government buildings were inspired in large part by WSPU activism. [33]

The First World War, and a wave of suffrage legislation in Europe, further accelerated the US suffrage movement. [34] In the five years after 1914, suffrage passed in Denmark, Iceland, Russia, Canada, Austria, Germany, Poland, and England. Although the NWP had already been picketing the White House for several months, it was only when they embarrassed President Woodrow Wilson in front of a visiting Russian delegation, whose wartime cooperation he was trying to secure, that the first six suffragists were arrested. [35] These women, held on charges of obstructing traffic, were followed by a long line of US women imprisoned for suffrage activism. The violence they faced on the picket line (for holding signs saying “Kaiser Wilson” amid rabid anti-German sentiment) and in jail, with forced feedings during hunger strikes, became international news. [36] International pressure helped compel Wilson’s January 1918 announcement of support for suffrage, as he promoted the Unites States as a beacon of democracy. By this time, the House had already passed the suffrage amendment (the Senate would still vote against it), but Wilson’s endorsement was significant to US and international public opinion. In Uruguay, suffragists utilized Wilson’s support to push their legislators toward suffrage. [37] (Figure 4)

Two more years of federal and state lobbying and organizing led to ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in August 1920. For Crystal Eastman, a pacifist, enthusiast of the Russian Revolution, and cofounder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), this accomplishment represented not an end, but a new beginning—one with internationalist significance: “Now [feminists] can say what they are really after,” she announced, “and what they are after, in common with all the rest of the struggling world, is freedom.” [38]

Figure 5. At this January 24, 1928, gathering of 200 women at the Asociación de Reporteros in Havana, Cuba, 5 US National Woman’s Party members joined Cuban suffragists to successfully plan to inject women’s rights into the 6th International Conference of American States meeting in Havana.

Courtesy of the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

The International Afterlives of the US Suffrage Movement
Struggles for women’s voting rights did not end with ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, which failed to eliminate the residency requirements, poll taxes, and literacy tests in the South that denied African American men and women the vote. African American women would not achieve this right until the 1965 Voting Rights Act. [39] For many, lack of rights in the United States drove new transnational activism. In the 1920s and ’30s, African American women collaborated with women from Africa, the Caribbean, and around the globe in the International Council of Women of the Darker Races (1922) and in Pan-Africanist and leftist organizing that connected demands for women’s political autonomy with those for antiracism, anticolonialism, Black nationalism, specifically viewing Black women’s self-determination as critical to broad and transformative social justice. [40]

US women’s involvement in Pan-American feminism was also an outgrowth of the US suffrage movement. In 1928, US and Cuban feminists created the Inter-American Commission of Women, the first intergovernmental organization in the world. Initially led by NWP suffrage veteran Doris Stevens, the commission forced an international treaty for women’s civil and political equal right into Pan-American and League of Nations congresses. A heterogeneous group of Latin American feminists, however, also recognized continuing efforts of US women to dominate the movement and developed their own anti-imperialist Pan-Hispanic feminism that demanded the vote. They asserted their own leadership over Pan-American feminism and used it to call for derechos humanos, which implied women’s political, civil, social, and economic rights alongside anti-imperialism and anti-fascism. At the 1945 San Francisco meeting that created the United Nations, Latin American female delegates, led by Brazilian feminist Bertha Lutz, drew on this movement to push women’s rights into the UN Charter and proposed what became the UN Commission on the Status of Women. In the wake of these events, numerous Latin American countries passed woman suffrage. [41] (Figure 5)

The transnational legacies of the suffrage movement are evident in US women’s ongoing quests for full citizenship today. Then as now, fights for women’s rights are connected to global movements for human rights—for immigrant, racial, labor, and feminist justice. [42] The internationalist history of the woman suffrage movement shows us that activists and movements outside the United States, and a broad range of diverse, international goals, were critical to organizing for that right deemed so quintessentially American—the right to vote. It reminds us how much we in the United States have to learn from feminist struggles around the world.

Bibliography and Further Reading

Addams, Jane, Emily G. Balch, and Alice Hamilton. Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and Its Results. Edited by Harriet Hyman Alonso. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Anderson, Bonnie S. Joyous Greetings: The First International Women’s Movement, 1830–1860. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

_______. The Rabbi’s Atheist Daughter: Ernestine Rose, International Feminist Pioneer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Bacon, Margaret Hope. “By Moral Force Alone: The Antislavery Women and Nonresistance.” In Yellin and Van Horne, Abolitionist Sisterhood, 275–300. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Badran, Margot. Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Bank, Michaela. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women’s Rights and Nativism, 1848–1890. New York: Berghahn Books, 2012.

Bay, Mia. To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Hill and Wang, 2010.

Berkovitch, Nitza. From Motherhood to Citizenship: Women’s Rights and International Organizations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Blackburn, Robin. The American Crucible: Slavery, Emancipation, and Human Rights. London: Verso, 2011.

Blackwell, Maylei. ¡Chicana Power! Contested Histories of Feminism in the Chicano Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.

Blain, Keisha N. Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and the Global Struggle for Freedom. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Bogin, Ruth, and Jean Fagan Yellin. “Introduction.” In Yellin and Van Horne, Abolitionist Sisterhood, 1–19.

Burton, Antoinette. Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865–1915. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Callahan, Noaquia N. “A Rare Colored Bird: Mary Church Terrell, Die Fortschritte der Farbigen Frauen, and the International Council of Women’s Congress in Berlin, Germany, 1904.” German Historical Institute Bulletin Supplement 13 (2017): 93–107.

Carby, Hazel. Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Cooper, Brittney C. Beyond Respectability: The Intellectual Thought of Race Women. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2018.

Cott, Nancy F. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.

Daut, Marlene L. Tropics of Haiti: Race and Literary History of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World, 1789–1865. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2015.

Davis, Angela Y. Women, Race, and Class. New York: Random House, 1981.

Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Hartford, CT: Park Publishing, 1883.

DuBois, Ellen Carol. “Ernestine Rose’s Jewish Origins and the Varieties of Euro-American Emancipation in 1848.” In Sklar and Stewart, Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Slavery in the Era of Emancipation, 279–298.

_______. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848–1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

———. Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

_______. “Woman Suffrage and the Left: An International Socialist-Feminist Perspective.” In Woman Suffrage and Women’s Rights, edited by Ellen Carol DuBois, 252–282. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_______. “Woman Suffrage around the World: Three Phases of Suffragist Internationalism.” In Suffrage and Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives, edited by Caroline Daley and Melanie Nolan, 252–276. New York: New York University Press, 1994.

Dumenil, Lynn. The Second Line of Defense: American Women and World War I. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Edwards, Louise. “Chinese Women’s Campaigns for Suffrage: Nationalism, Confucianism, and Political Agency.” In Edwards and Roces, Women’s Suffrage in Asia, 59–78.

_______. Gender, Politics, and Democracy: Women’s Suffrage in China . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Edwards, Louise, and Mina Roces, eds. Women’s Suffrage in Asia: Gender, Nationalism, and Democracy. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Ehrick, Christine. “‘Madrinas’ and Missionaries: Uruguay and the Pan-American Women’s Movement.” Gender and History 10, no. 3 (November 1998): 406–424.

Espinosa, Doña María Influencia del feminismo en la legislación contemporánea. Madrid: Editorial Reus, 1920.

Farmer, Ashley D. Remaking Black Power: How Black Women Transformed an Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Florey, Kenneth. Women’s Suffrage Memorabilia: An Illustrated Historical Study. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2013.

Freedman, Estelle B., ed. The Essential Feminist Reader. New York: Modern Library, 2007.

———. No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. New York: Ballantine Books, 2002.

González, Gabriela. “Jovita Idar: The Ideological Origins of a Transnational Advocate for La Raza.” In Texas Women: Their Histories, Their Lives, edited by Elizabeth Haynes Turner, Stephanie Cole, and Rebecca Sharpless, 225–248. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015.

_______. Redeeming la Raza: Transborder Modernity, Race, Respectability, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Gore, Dayo. Radicalism at the Crossroads: African American Women Activists in the Cold War. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

Grimshaw, Patricia. “Settler Anxieties, Indigenous Peoples, and Women’s Suffrage in the Colonies of Australia, New Zealand, and Hawai’i, 1888–1902.” In Edwards and Roces, Women’s Suffrage in Asia, 220–239.

Harper, Frances E. W. Iola Leroy, Or, Shadows Uplifted. Edited by Koritha Mitchell. Ontario: Broadview Editions, 2018.

Hewitt, Nancy A. “From Seneca Falls to Suffrage? Reimagining a ‘Master’ Narrative in U.S. Women’s History.” In No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism, edited by Nancy A. Hewitt, 15–38. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

_______. “In Pursuit of Power: The Political Economy of Women’s Activism in Twentieth-Century Tampa.” In Visible Women: New Essays on Women’s Activism, edited by Nancy A. Hewitt and Suzanne Lebsock, 199–222. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

_______. “‘Seeking a Larger Liberty’: Remapping First Wave Feminism.” In Sklar and Stewart, Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Slavery in the Era of Emancipation, 266–278.

Hobson, Emily. Lavender and Red: Liberation and Solidarity in the Gay and Lesbian Left. Oakland: University of California Press, 2016.

Holton, Sandra Stanley. “‘To Educate Women into Rebellion’: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Creation of a Transatlantic Network of Radical Suffragists.” American Historical Review 99, no. 4 (October 1994): 1112–1136.

Jiménez-Muñoz, Gladys. “Deconstructing Colonialist Discourses: Links between the Suffrage Movements in the United States and Puerto Rico,” Phoebe: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Feminist Scholarship, Theory, and Aesthetics 5, no. 1 (1993): 9-34.

Jones, Martha S. All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Political Culture, 1830–1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Kanellos, Nicolás. “ Envisioning and Re-visioning the Nation: Latino Intellectual Traditions .” American Latino Theme Study, National Park Services Website .

Kimble, Sara L. “Transatlantic Networks for Legal Feminism, 1888–1912.” German Historical Institute Bulletin Supplement 13 (2017): 55–73.

Kramarae, Cheris, and Paula A. Treichler. A Feminist Dictionary. Boston: Pandora Press, 1985.

Levenstein, Lisa. “A Social Movement for a Global Age: U.S. Feminism and the Beijing Women’s Conference of 1995.” Journal of American History 105, no. 2 (September 2018): 336–365.

Marino, Katherine. Feminism for the Americas: The Making of an International Human Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019 (forthcoming).

Markwyn, Abigail M. “Encountering ‘Woman’ on the Fairgrounds of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition.” In Gendering the Fair: Histories of Women and Gender at World’s Fairs, edited by T. J. Boisseau and Abigail M. Markwyn, 169–186. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Materson, Lisa G. “African American Women’s Global Journeys and the Construction of Cross-Ethnic Racial Identity.” Women’s Studies International Forum 32, no. 1 (January–February 2009): 35–42.

McDuffie, Erik S. Sojourning for Freedom: Black Women, American Communism, and the Making of Black Left Feminism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

McFadden, Margaret H. Golden Cables of Sympathy: The Transatlantic Sources of Nineteenth-Century Feminism. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

Mickenberg, Julia. American Girls in Red Russia: Chasing the Soviet Dream. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

———. “Suffragettes and Soviets: American Feminists and the Specter of Revolutionary Russia.” Journal of American History 100, no. 4 (March 2014): 1021–1051.

Miller, Francesca. Latin American Women and the Search for Social Justice. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1991.

Moynagh, Maureen, and Nancy Forestell, eds. Documenting First Wave Feminisms. Vol. 1, Transnational Collaborations and Crosscurrents. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Offen, Karen. European Feminisms, 1700–1950: A Political History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

_______. “On the French Origins of the Words Feminism and Feminist.” Feminist Issues 8, no. 2 (June 1988): 45–51.

Olcott, Jocelyn. International Women’s Year: The Greatest Consciousness-Raising Event in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Orleck, Annelise. Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900–1965. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

_______. Rethinking American Women’s Activism. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Pérez, Emma. The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Peterson, Carla L. “Literary Transnationalism and Diasporic History: Frances Watkins Harper’s ‘Fancy Sketches,’ 1859–60.” In Sklar and Stewart, Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Slavery in the Era of Emancipation, 189–210.

Reinalda, Bob. Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Remond, Sarah Parker. “Lecture at the Lion Hotel, Warrington (1859).” In Moynagh and Forestell, Documenting First Wave Feminisms, 1:46–47.

Richmond, Stephanie “How did Antislavery Women Use Portraits to Represent Themselves in the Transatlantic Antislavery Movement?” In Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600–2000 .

Rief, Michelle M. “‘Banded Close Together’: An Afrocentric Study of African American Women’s International Activism, 1850–1940, and the International Council of Women of the Darker Races.” PhD diss., Temple University, 2003.

_______. “Thinking Locally, Acting Globally: The International Agenda of African American Clubwomen, 1880–1940.” Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (Summer 2004): 203–222.

Ruiz, Vicki L. “Class Acts: Latina Feminist Traditions, 1900–1930.” American Historical Review 121, no. 1 (February 2016): 1–16.

_______. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Ruiz, Vicki L., and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, eds. Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

Rupp, Leila J. Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Salenius, Sirpa. An Abolitionist Abroad: Sarah Parker Remond in Cosmopolitan Europe. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2016.

Salzer, Kenneth. “Great Exhibitions: Ellen Craft on the British Abolitionist Stage.” In Transatlantic Women: Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers and Great Britain, edited by Beth Lynne Lueck, Brigitte Bailey, and Lucinda L. Damon-Bach, 136–152. Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2012.

Sandell, Marie. The Rise of Women’s Transnational Activism: Identity and Sisterhood between the World Wars. London: I. B. Tauris, 2015.

Schappes, Morris, ed. “Ernestine Rose: Her Address on the Anniversary of West Indian Emancipation.” Journal of Negro History 34, no. 3 (July 1949): 344–355.

Schechter, Patricia Ann. Ida B. Wells-Barnett and American Reform, 1888–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Sinha, Manisha. The Slave’s Cause: A History of Abolition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “‘Women Who Speak for an Entire Nation’: American and British Women at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, London, 1840.” In Yellin and Fagan, Abolitionist Sisterhood, 301–334.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish, and Kari Amidon, “ How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals? ” In Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600–2000.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish, and James Brewer Stewart, eds. Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Slavery in the Era of Emancipation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.

Sneider, Allison L. Suffragists in an Imperial Age: U.S. Expansion and the Woman Question, 1870–1929. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Stansell, Christine. The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present. New York: Modern Library, 2013.

Stewart, Maria W. “Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality, the Sure Foundation on Which We Must Build. Productions from the Pen of Mrs. Maria W. Steward [sic], Widow of the Late James W. Steward, of Boston.” In Maria W. Stewart, America’s First Black Woman Political Writer: Essays and Speeches, edited by Marilyn Richardson, 28–42. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850–1920. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

_______. “Enfranchising Women of Color: Woman Suffragists as Agents of Imperialism.” In Nation, Empire, Colony: Historicizing Gender and Race, edited by Ruth Roach Pierson and Nupur Chaudhuri, 41–56. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Teele, Dawn Langan. Forging the Franchise: The Political Origins of the Women’s Vote. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018.

Tetrault, Lisa. The Myth of Seneca Falls: Memory and the Women’s Suffrage Movement, 1848–1898. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

Threlkeld, Megan. Pan American Women: U.S. Internationalists and Revolutionary Mexico. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Tyrrell, Ian. Woman’s World, Woman’s Empire: The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union in International Perspective, 1880–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Villegas de Magnón, Leonor. The Rebel. Houston: Arte Público Press, 1994.

Wagner, Sally Roesch, and Jeanne Shenandoah. Sisters in Spirit: Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Influence on Early American Feminists. Summertown, TN: Native Voices, 2001.

Ware, Susan. Why They Marched: Untold Stories of the Women Who Fought for the Right to Vote. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019.

Weber, Charlotte. “Unveiling Scheherazade: Feminist Orientalism in the International Alliance of Women, 1911–1950.” Feminist Studies 27, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 125–157.

Wells, Brandy Thomas. “‘She Pieced and Stitched and Quilted, Never Wavering nor Doubting’: A Historical Tapestry of African American Women’s Internationalism, 1890s–1960s.” PhD diss., Ohio State University, 2015.

Wu, Judy Tzu-Chun. Radicals on the Road: Internationalism, Orientalism, and Feminism during the Vietnam Era. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Yasatuke, Rumi. “Re-Franchising Women of Hawai’i, 1912–1920: The Politics of Gender, Sovereignty, Race, and Rank at the Crossroads of the Pacific.” In Gendering the Trans-Pacific World, edited by Catherine Ceniza Choy and Judy Tzu-Chun Wu, 114–139. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

Yellin, Jean Fagan, and John C. Van Horne, eds. The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Yung, Judy. Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Zaeske, Susan. Signatures of Citizenship: Petitioning, Antislavery, and Women’s Political Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Zetkin, Clara. “From ‘Women’s Right to Vote,’ 1907, A Resolution Introduced at the International Socialist Congress.” In Moynagh and Forestell, Documenting First Wave Feminisms, 1:137–143.

2000 - Today

New Assurance Innovations

Assurance tires featuring TripleTred and ComforTred technology introduced.

Instant Puncture Repair for Commercial Tires

Duraseal commercial tire technology that repairs punctures when they occur is introduced.

Goodyear Partners with NASA (Again)

Goodyear and NASA develop an airless "spring tire" for use on Mars and the moon.

New Beginnings at Goodyear Headquarters

Ground broken on new global headquarters in Akron.

Air Maintenance Technology Announced

Development of Goodyear's Air Maintenance Technology announced.

New Headquarters Open for Business

Goodyear holds the grand opening of the new global headquarters in Akron.

V. The Trinity Test

Document 44: Letter from Commissar of State Security First Rank, V. Merkulov, to People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs L. P. Beria, 10 July 1945, Number 4305/m, Top Secret (translation by Anna Melyaskova)

Source: L.D. Riabev, ed., Atomnyi Proekt SSSR (Moscow: izd MFTI, 2002), Volume 1, Part 2, 335-336

This 10 July 1945 letter from NKVD director V. N. Merkulov to Beria is an example of Soviet efforts to collect inside information on the Manhattan Project, although not all the detail was accurate. Merkulov reported that the United States had scheduled the test of a nuclear device for that same day, although the actual test took place 6 days later. According to Merkulov, two fissile materials were being produced: element-49 (plutonium), and U-235 the test device was fueled by plutonium. The Soviet source reported that the weight of the device was 3 tons (which was in the ball park) and forecast an explosive yield of 5 kilotons. That figure was based on underestimates by Manhattan Project scientists: the actual yield of the test device was 20 kilotons.

As indicated by the L.D. Riabev’s notes, it is possible that Beria’s copy of this letter ended up in Stalin’s papers. That the original copy is missing from Beria’s papers suggests that he may have passed it on to Stalin before the latter left for the Potsdam conference.[41]

Document 45: Telegram War [Department] 33556, from Harrison to Secretary of War, July 17, 1945, Top Secret

Source: RG 77, MED Records, Top Secret Documents, File 5e (copy from microfilm)

An elated message from Harrison to Stimson reported the success of the Trinity Test of a plutonium implosion weapon. The light from the explosion could been seen “from here [Washington, D.C.] to “high hold” [Stimson’s estate on Long Island—250 miles away]” and it was so loud that Harrison could have heard the “screams” from Washington, D.C. to “my farm” [in Upperville, VA, 50 miles away][42]

Document 46: Memorandum from General L. R. Groves to Secretary of War, “The Test,” July 18, 1945, Top Secret, Excised Copy

Source: RG 77, MED Records, Top Secret Documents, File no. 4 (copy from microfilm)

General Groves prepared for Stimson, then at Potsdam, a detailed account of the Trinity test.[43]

Chapter 1

It was known that the Earth was round, so Columbus’s plan seemed plausible. The distance he would need to travel was not known, however, and he greatly underestimated the Earth’s circumference therefore, he would have no way of recognizing when he had arrived at his destination.

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

    If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:

  • Use the information below to generate a citation. We recommend using a citation tool such as this one.
    • Authors: P. Scott Corbett, Volker Janssen, John M. Lund, Todd Pfannestiel, Sylvie Waskiewicz, Paul Vickery
    • Publisher/website: OpenStax
    • Book title: U.S. History
    • Publication date: Dec 30, 2014
    • Location: Houston, Texas
    • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/us-history/pages/1-introduction
    • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/us-history/pages/chapter-1

    © Jan 11, 2021 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.

    Highights in the History of Epilepsy: The Last 200 Years

    The purpose of this study was to present the evolution of views on epilepsy as a disease and symptom during the 19th and the 20th century. A thorough study of texts, medical books, and reports along with a review of the available literature in PubMed was undertaken. The 19th century is marked by the works of the French medical school and of John Hughlings Jackson who set the research on epilepsy on a solid scientific basis. During the 20th century, the invention of EEG, the advance in neurosurgery, the discovery of antiepileptic drugs, and the delineation of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, were the most significant advances in the field of research in epilepsy. Among the most prestigious physicians connected with epilepsy one can pinpoint the work of Henry Gastaut, Wilder Penfield, and Herbert Jasper. The most recent advances in the field of epilepsy include the development of advanced imaging techniques, the development of microsurgery, and the research on the connection between genetic factors and epileptic seizures.

    1. Introduction

    The history of epilepsy is intermingled with the history of human existence the first reports on epilepsy can be traced back to the Assyrian texts, almost 2,000 B.C. [1]. Multiple references to epilepsy can be found in the ancient texts of all civilizations, most importantly in the ancient Greek medical texts of the Hippocratic collection. For example, Hippocrates in his book On Sacred Disease described the first neurosurgery procedure referring that craniotomy should be performed at the opposite side of the brain of the seizures, in order to spare patients from “phlegma” that caused the disease [2]. However, it was not until the 18th and 19th century, when medicine made important advances and research on epilepsy was emancipated from religious superstitions such as the fact that epilepsy was a divine punishment or possession [3, 4]. At the beginning of the 18th century, the view that epilepsy was an idiopathic disease deriving from brain and other inner organs prevailed. One should mention the important work in this field by William Culen (1710–1790) and Samuel A. Tissot whose work set the base of modern epileptology describing accurately various types of epilepsies.

    2. Anatomy and Physiology of Epilepsy

    2.1. Evolution of Thoughts around the Pathophysiology and Causes of Epilepsy

    At the beginning of the 19th century, physicians from the French medical school started to publish their research in the field of epileptology famous French physicians published their works on epilepsy such as Maisonneuve (1745–1826) [5], Calmeil (1798–1895) [6], and Jean-Etienne Dominique Esquirol (1772–1840). Maisonneuve stressed the importance for hospitalization of epileptic patients, categorized epilepsy into idiopathic and sympathetic and described the so-called sensitive aura of sympathetic epilepsy. Esquirol distinguished between petit and grand mal and along with his pupils Bouchet and Cazauvieilh studied systematically insanity and epilepsy conducting clinical and postmortem studies [3].

    During the second half of the 19th century, medicine focused on the delineation of pathophysiology of epilepsy and the topographic localization of epileptic seizures. Important works on epileptogenesis, aetiology, and taxonomy of epilepsy were published by prestigious physicians such as Théodore Herpin (1799–1865) in 1852 and 1867, Louis Jean François Delasiauve (1804–1893) in 1854, John Russell Reynolds (1828–1896) in 1861, and in 1881 by Sir William Richard Gowers (1845–1915). Regarding the delineation of the epileptic mechanisms, the proof that epilepsy derives from the brain came from the work of physiologist Fritsch (1838–1927) and psychiatrist Hitzig (1838–1907) in their paper entitled “On the Electric Excitability of the Cerebrum” they presented experiments in which they provoked seizures by electric stimulation in the brain cortex of dogs [7]. The work, however, of John Hughling Jackson (1835–1911) (Figure 1), set the scientific base of epileptology [3]. Jackson studied epilepsy on pathological and anatomical basis. His Study of Convulsions was the culmination of his research stressing the existence of localised lesions on cortex involved in epileptic convulsions. In 1873, Jackson gave the following definition for epilepsy: “Epilepsy is the name for occasional, sudden, excessive, rapid and local discharges of grey matter” [3].

    Epileptology, based on the work of Jackson and other eminent doctors of the 19th century, such as John Simon (1816–1904), John Russell Reynolds (1828–1896), Samuel Wilks, William Richard Gowers (1845–1915), Adolf Kussmaul (1822–1902), and Adolf Tenner, expanded and made important steps towards the elucidation of the pathophysiology of the disease and in the field of therapeutics [3].

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934), a Spanish pathologist, histologist, and neuroscientist, made important advances in the field of the microscopic structure of the brain and the nervous system. He was the first to describe the structure of neurons and synapses, a hallmark finding in the history of neurology. His findings were the culmination of efforts which began in 1887, when he started employing the Golgi staining in the study of the nervous system. As a reward of his efforts, Cajal, in 1906, received the Nobel Prize [8].

    In 1907, Gowers published his famous book The Borderlands of Epilepsy [9] focusing on faints, vagal and vasovagal attacks, migraine, vertigo, and some sleep symptoms, especially narcolepsy. In 1914, Dale (1875–1968) identified acetylcholine [10], the first neurotransmitter, a discovery confirmed later in 1921 by Loewi (1873–1961) who initially named it Vagusstoff, since it was released by the vagus nerve [11–13].

    During the 1920s, Lennox (1884–1960) and Cobb (1887–1968) focused on the effects of starvation, ketogenic diet, and altered cerebral oxygen in seizures and published their first monograph entitled “Epilepsy from the Standpoint of Physiology and Treatment” [14]. In 1922, Cobb and Lennox published another monograph entitled “Epilepsy and Related Disorders” (1928) [15] and an important paper summarizing their research entitled “The Relation of Certain Physicochemical Processes to Epileptiform Seizures” (1929) [16]. Lennox and Cobb focused on the effects of various stimuli to the generation of epileptic convulsions such as starvation, ketogenic diet, and lack of oxygen, most of them with negative results.

    During the 1940s, important discoveries were made in the field of psychomotor epilepsy. Klüver (1897–1979), a German-American psychologist, and Bucy (1904–1992), an American neuropathologist, well known for the discovery of the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, showed that changes in the behavior of monkeys could be associated with temporal lobe lesions [17]. In 1941, Jasper (1906–1999) and Kershmann proved that the temporal lobe is the site of origin of psychomotor seizures [18]. At the same period, Moruzzi (1910–1986) and Magoun (1907–1991) discovered the reticular formation in the brain [19]. Magoun continued his research with Lindsley (1907–2003) and Starzl (1926-) identifying various neural pathways within the brain and pointing out the important role in alert wakefulness as a background for sensory perception, higher intellectual activity, voluntary movements, and behaviors [20, 21]. Dawson in 1947 recorded the responses from the human scalp in response to somatosensory stimuli (somatosensory evoked potential) [22], whereas in 1949 Roberts (1920-) and Frankel discovered

    Important advances were made in the field of neuroscience and in the physiology of synapses by Eccles (1903–1997), Kandel (1929-), Spencer (1931–1977), Speckmann (1939-), Purpura, Meldrum, and others [24–38].

    James Kiffin Penry (1929–1996), in 1969, published important treatises such as the series Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies and afterwards Antiepileptic Drugs, Neurosurgical Management of the Epilepsies, Complex Partial Seizures, and their Treatment, and Antiepileptic Drugs Mechanisms of Action and Advances in Epileptology. In the same year Gastaut managed to organize a meeting in Marseilles attended by 120 members of ILAE and a preliminary classification of epilepsies was presented to a commission on terminology of epilepsy. The General Assembly of the ILAE accepted the first publication of clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures [39, 40].

    Dreifuss (1926–1997) worked on video-monitoring of absence seizures and helped in the classification of various epileptic conditions [41]. Prince et al. made the first studies of cellular phenomena of epileptic events in the human cortex [42–44]. Meldrum et al. proved that the assumption connecting brain damage from seizures as a result of hypoxia is wrong [45–47] he demonstrated that the excessive excitatory activity is responsible for the brain cellular loss.

    During the last two decades, various changes regarding the epileptic brain damage were also studied, such as the mossy fiber sprouting and synaptic reorganization [48–51].

    2.2. The Electrophysiology of Epilepsy and the EEG

    The first reference regarding the association of electric stimuli and brain activity came from the work of Fritsch (1838–1927) and Hitzig (1938–1907), who managed to cause convulsion to dogs by applying electric stimuli on the animals’ cortex. Five years later, in 1875, Caton (1842–1926) examined the electrical activity of nerve-muscle preparations and explored the possibility whether similar changes in electrical potential occurred in the brain [52]. A few years later, in 1890, Beck from Cracau in the pages of Zentrallblatt for Physiologie argued the case for the priority of the electrical activity of the brain, after electrical stimulation in the brain of dogs and rabbits [53]. In 1912, Kaufman (1877–1951), a Russian physiologist, noticed the electric changes in the brain during experimentally induced seizures, associating epileptic attacks with abnormal electric discharges [54] (EEG). In the same year, Pravdich-Neminsky (1879–1952), a Ukrainian physiologist, published the first animal EEG and the evoked potential of the mammalian (dog) [55].

    Two years later, Cybulski (1854–1919), a Polish physiologist and pioneer in electroencephalography, in cooperation with Jelenska-Macieszyna [56], published the first photographs of electroencephalography recording action potentials at a dog with focal epilepsy.

    Important discoveries in the fields of electroencephalography were made during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1929, Berger (1873–1941), a German neurologist, reported his findings on human brain waves [57], five years after his initial recording of the first human electroencephalogram. His results brought controversy and scepticism within the scientific community, but he was neither rejected nor ignored his results were confirmed later by Adrian (1899–1977) and Matthews [58]. In 1932, Berger reported sequential postictal EEG changes after a generalized tonicoclonic seizure, and in 1933 he published the first example of interictal changes and a minor epileptic seizure with 3/s rhythmic waves in the EEG [59, 60]. In the next few years until 1939, Berger made important observations on patients and on healthy subjects. His work on epileptic EEG was completed by Frederic Andrews Gibbs (1903–1992), an American neurologist, and Erna Leonhardt-Gibbs (1904–1987), technician and wife of Frederic, who, in collaboration with Lennox, established the correlation between EEG findings and epileptic convulsions [61–63] Lennox and Gibbs published in 1941 their monumental monograph “Atlas of Electroencephalography,” in which they included also mechanical and mathematical analysis of electroencephalograms [64].

    An important and influential figure in the field of EEG whose work was intensified during the 1950s was Henri Jean Pascal Gastaut (1915–1995) (Figure 2). After his graduation in 1945 from the University of Marseilles, Gastaut worked at the laboratory of William Grey Walter (1910–1977) in Bristol learning the basics of EEG and discovered photic stimulation as an EEG seizure activator. In 1949, he went to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) with Wilder Penfield (1891–1976), famous Canadian neurosurgeon, and Herbert Jasper (Figure 3) (1906–1999), a Canadian psychologist, physiologist, anatomist, chemist, and neurologist who established in 1939 an EEG laboratory and studied the role of thalamic reticular structures in the genesis of metrazol-induced generalized paroxysmal EEG discharges and developed the concept of centrencephalic seizures [65]. After his return to Marseilles, Gastaut founded the International EEG Federation and, in 1953, became the Head of the Marseilles Hospital Neurobiological Laboratories establishing a school of neurology that dominated for the next decades. In 1958, he participated in the foundation of the Toul Ar C’hoat Center in Brittany for the education of epileptic children, whereas two years later he created the Saint Paul Center for epileptic children and, in 1961, the INSERM Neurobiology Research Unit. His contribution in the study of epileptology was monumental with his wife, Yvette, he defined five major human EEG patterns (lambda waves, pi rhythm, mu rhythm, rolandic spikes, and posterior theta rhythm) [66, 67]. He also described two syndromes under his name: Gastaut syndrome, a type of photosensitive epilepsy [68], and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (severe childhood encephalopathy) with onset in childhood with myoclonic seizures at night, head nodding, and drop attacks particularly prominent [69, 70]. He also studied photic and other self-induced seizures, startle epilepsy, HHE syndrome, and benign partial epilepsy of childhood with occipital spike-waves [68, 71–75].

    Wilder Penfield (1891–1976) on the right and Herbert Jasper (1906–1999) on the left (adopted by public domain at http://baillement.com/lettres/penfield.html).

    During the 1960s, important EEG studies were conducted in animals mainly by Prince and his research team demonstrating the spikes and waves associated with synchronous paroxysmal depolarizing bursts occurring in cortical neurons [76–79] and the spike-wave complex [80]. In 1968, Falconer recognized the importance of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy [81].

    2.3. The Patch-Clamp Technique

    An important development in the field of neuroscience was that of Neher (1944-), who invented the patch-clamp method to measure the flow of current through single-ion channels [82]. Neher and Sakmann developed the patch-clamp technique for which in 1992 they received the Nobel Prize [83]. Using the patch-clump technique, the various ion channels were able to be studied and, thus, the role of calcium channels was clarified in epilepsy [84].

    3. Therapy of Epilepsy

    3.1. The Evolution of Antiepileptic Surgery

    The first surgical procedures on epileptic patients were performed during the 19th century Heyman in 1831 was the first one to perform a surgery to an epileptic patient due to a brain abscess. Surgical excision was performed on November 25, 1884, by Dr. Godlee in the National Hospital of London. In 1880, Wilhelm Sommer (1852–1900), German neurologist and psychiatrist, described precisely Ammon’s horn lesions and epileptic manifestations part with sensible occurrence. Both Theodor Kocher (1841–1917), a Swiss surgeon from Bern, Nobelist, and pioneer in epileptic surgery, and Harvey Cushing (1869–1939), father of modern neurological surgery, in Baltimore dealt with posttraumatic epileptic disorders especially with patients displaying high endocranial pressure [85, 86]. In 1886, Horsley (1875–1916) excised an epileptogenic posttraumatic cortical scar at the National Hospital of London in a 23-year-old man under general anesthesia and discussed his choice of anesthesia: “I have not employed ether in operations on man, fearing that it would tend to cause cerebral excitement chloroform, of course, producing on the contrary, well-marked depression.” [87]. In Germany, Krause (1857–1937) and Foerster (1873–1941) refined Horsley’s technique [88, 89].

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Dandy (1886–1946) introduced hemispherectomy as a neurosurgical procedure in 1923 [90]. However it was not until the 1930s than important advances were made in epileptic surgery. The notion of operating the epileptogenic focus was introduced by Gibbs and Lennox in 1938 [91]. The introduction of EEG into epilepsy surgery was important in the development of surgical techniques.

    Penfield along with Jasper and Theodore Brown Rasmussen (1910–2002) in the Neurologic Center of University of Montreal also contributed importantly to the evolution of the surgery of epilepsy [92, 93]. Penfield applied the Foerster method for removing epileptogenic lesions on an epilepsy patient. After founding the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), in 1934, in collaboration with Jasper, he invented the Montreal procedure for the surgical treatment of epilepsy. According to the Montreal procedure, through the administration of local anesthetic, the surgeon removes part of the skull to expose brain tissue and, by the use of probes, the conscious patient describes to the surgeon his/her feelings so that the surgeon can identify the exact location of seizure activity. Then the surgeon proceeds in the removal of brain tissue in this location reducing the side effects of surgery [94]. Through his operations, Penfield was able to identify various brain centers and to create maps of the sensory and motor cortices of the brain. Research in MNI focused also on other areas of epileptology such as neurochemistry, oncology, and brain angiology. Penfield perfected and established his surgical procedures as a treatment of choice in intractable epilepsy, especially of neocortical regions [94–96]. In 1954, Penfield published with Jasper one of the greatest classics in neurology, Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of the Human Brain [93].

    Around the same period, van Wagenen and Herren (1897–1961), Chief of Neurosurgery at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), performed and perfected the procedure of callosotomy [97]. Bailey (1892–1973), an American neuropathologist, neurosurgeon, and psychiatrist, known for his work on brain oncology, was the first to attempt temporal lobectomies for psychomotor seizures and the first to use electrocorticography for intraoperative localization [98]. One should also mention the method of hemispherectomy introduced by McKenzie (1892–1964) [99] and Krynauw in 1950 [100].

    Bailey and Gibbs in 1951 employed the EEG as a guide to perform temporal lobe surgery [98], whereas, in 1953, Falconer, a neurosurgeon from New Zealand, in London, introduced the en bloc anterior temporal lobe resection and the term mesial temporal sclerosis [101]. The work of Margerison and Corsellis led to the term of hippocampal sclerosis [102], a pathological entity which was initially described almost 80 years earlier by Sommer in 1880 [103]. Niemeyer, in 1958, suggested a more selective procedure of resection of the mesiobasal limbic structure [104], a technique which was later on abandoned.

    The next important step in the field of antiepileptic surgery was done by Tailarach and his team. In 1957, Tailarach (1911–2007) published his stereotactic atlas, a work that changed the future of epilepsy neurosurgery the next decade [105] Marcel David adopting Tailarach’s views supported the creation of an operating room in which stereotactic surgery would take place. Within this operating room teleradiography would take place and the use of parallel X-ray beams would avoid distortions of skull, vessels, ventricles, and the frame and grids used for guiding the placement of intracranial electrodes. The first stereotactic surgery operating room was opened in Sainte-Anne in 1959 [106]. Tailarach’s team obtained two members, Alain Bonis and Gabor Szikla. In 1962, the term stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) was introduced by Talairach and Jean Bancaud (1921–1993). Their method brought a revolution in the surgery of epilepsy, since it allowed investigative presurgical and therapeutic surgical phases to be completely dissociated. Tailarach and Bancaud employing their technique showed that lesional and irritative zones had a variable topographic relationship within the epileptogenic zone [14]. Tailarach’s method allowed the individualization of epileptic surgery for each patient [18, 19].

    During the 1960s, Bogen and Vogel reintroduced the procedure of callosotomy [107] as a procedure for certain cases of pharmacoresistant epilepsy with severe atonic akinetic seizures. In 1961, White published a comprehensive review on the surgical procedure of hemispherectomy summarizing the results of 269 published cases [108] in the treatment of infantile-type hemiplegia and seizures. In 1969, Morell and Hanbrey introduced “multiple subpial transection” (MST) for nonresectable epileptic foci [108].

    At the beginning of the 1980s, in the field of antiepileptic surgery, MTLE suggested selective amygdalohippocampectomy (AHE) with the trans-Sylvian approach, replacing the anterior temporal lobe resection [109]. The advent of modern diagnostic techniques such as MRI, PET, and SPECT (single photon emission tomography), 31 P and 1 H-MR spectroscopy, and MEG (magnetoencephalography) revolutionized epileptic surgery, as well. The application of microsurgery led to selective operations with less complications such procedures include “selective amygdalohippocampectomy” [109], the innovation of older ones, anterior callosotomy, subtotal functional hemispherectomy, and extended multilobar resections, and the introduction of new operative techniques such as multiple subpial transection [109] and gamma knife.

    3.2. Drug Therapy

    As far as therapies and the neurophysiology of epilepsy are concerned, much were already known during the second half of 19th century. Treatment of epilepsy till that time mostly consisted of herbal and chemical substances. In 1857, Sir Locock (1799–1875) discovered the anticonvulsant and sedative traits of potassium bromide and began treating his patients. From that point, potassium bromide became a choice treatment for humans with epileptic seizures and nervous disorders until the 1912 discovery of phenobarbital [110].

    In 1912, Hauptmann (1881–1948), a German physician, introduced phenobarbital in the therapy of epilepsy, one of the first antiepileptic drugs [111]. Phenobarbital was brought to market by the drug company Bayer using the brand Luminal. Hauptmann administered Luminal to his epilepsy patients as a tranquilizer and discovered that their epileptic attacks were susceptible to the drug. The introduction of animal models in the study of the anticonvulsant properties of various substances will contribute to the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    The next drug introduced in the therapy of epilepsy was phenytoin in 1938. Although phenytoin was already known from 1908 and was synthesized by Heinrich Biltz (1865–1943), there was no interest for that drug since it did not have any sedative properties. Merritt (1902–1979), an eminent academic neurologist, along with Putnam (1894–1975), discovered, in 1938, the anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (Dilantin) and its effect on the control of epileptic seizures publishing their results in a series of papers [112–115]. Phenytoin became the first-line medication for the prevention of partial and tonic-clonic seizures and for acute cases of epilepsies or status epilepticus, giving an alternative therapeutic choice for patients not responding to bromides or barbiturates. In 1946, a new antiepileptic drug was added in the quiver of antiepileptic therapy, trimethadione it was reported by Richards and Everett to prevent pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and to be effective especially in absence seizures [116].

    During the 1950s, new drugs came up such as carbamazepine in 1953 [117], primidone in 1954, ethosuximide in 1958 by Vossen [118], sodium valproate in 1963 by Meunier et al. [119], and sultiame. Buchtal and Svensmark were the first ones in 1960 to measure the levels of the antiepileptic drugs in the blood [120]. Although carbamazepine and valproate were available in Europe during the 1960s, no other drug was licensed in the USA. The development of carbamazepine was based on the neuroleptic drug chlorpromazine from Firma Rhône-Poulenc in Lyon. Jean Pierre (1907–1987) and Pierre Deniker (1917–1998), French psychiatrists, used chlorpromazine in Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne in Paris to treat patients with schizophrenia. However, research on neuroleptic drugs continued in Geigy labs carbamazepine was synthesized by Schindler and Blattner (1921-?) at J. R. Geigy AG, Basel, Switzerland, 1953, in the course of development of another antidepressant drug imipramine [117]. Initial animal screening showed that carbamazepine was effective against trigeminal neuralgia, which was confirmed by clinical trials [121]. Antiepileptic effects were reported in 1963 and 1964 [122, 123]. It was used as an anticonvulsant drug in the UK since 1965 and has been approved in the USA since 1974. The reason for the delay of approval in the USA was due to reports of aplastic anemia caused by the drug [124]. Ethosuximide was first introduced in clinical practice in the early 1950s for the therapy of absence “petit mal.”

    In 1967, valproate came up as a new promising antiepileptic drug. Valproate was initially synthesized in 1881 by Beverly Burton in the USA and was initially employed as an organic solvent [125] his research on valproate begun in Würzburg, Germany. The anticonvulsant properties of valproate were reported by Pierre Eymard, who worked at Firma Berthier laboratories in Grenoble, and it was first released as antiepileptic drug in France in 1967 [126] after the publication of preclinical studies by Garraz et al. in 1964. During 1970, it received license to other European countries, but in the USA it was not licensed before 1978.

    In 1970, Penry and Cereghino were employed in designing clinical trials for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Harvey Kupferberg joined their team and together they developed a methodology for measuring the blood-levels of albutoin, an experimental drug which was proved to be ineffective in epilepsy. The first edition of Antiepileptic Drugs came forth as a result of their research efforts in 1972 [127]. Carbamazepine was the first drug to be licensed by the FDA based on the results of clinical trials. Pippenger (1939-) developed methods for measuring blood-levels of AEDs [128]. Other antiepileptic drugs introduced during the 1970s were clobazam (1,5-benzodiazepine) (1970), clonazepam (1,4-benzodiazepine) (1970), and piracetam.

    The last decade newer antiepileptic drugs such as vigabatrin (1989), lamotrigine (1990), oxcarbazepine (1990), gabapentin (1993), felbamate (1993), topiramate (1995), tiagabine (1998), zonisamide (1989 in Japan and 2000 in the USA), levetiracetam (2000), stiripentol (2002), pregabalin (2004), rufinamide (2004), lacosamide (2008), eslicarbazepine (2009), and perampanel (2012) were used. FDA ended clinical use of felbamate in 1994 due to its association with complications. The newer generation antiepileptic drugs including vigabatrin, felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, tiagabine, topiramate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, pregabalin, rufinamide, and lacosamide have improved tolerability and safety compared to their older counterparts. Stiripentol, pregabalin, rufinamide, lacosamide, eslicarbazepine, and perampanel are licensed for adjunctive use only. The research in antiepileptic drugs is an active field and many drugs are currently under development in clinical trials including eslicarbazepine acetate, brivaracetam, and retigabine.

    In phase III clinical trials (which used eslicarbazepine doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/day), eslicarbazepine was well tolerated, with the most common AEs reported to include dizziness, headache, and somnolence [129–132]. Two large-scale, phase III clinical trials have been conducted for retigabine. In both studies, AEs leading to discontinuation included dizziness, somnolence, headache, and fatigue [133–136].

    3.3. The Idea of Ketogenic Diet

    Ketogenic diet was used for the first time in the treatment of epilepsy in 1911 by the French physicians Guelpa and Marie. It was introduced as a diet full of fats and low in proteins and carbohydrates and managed to treat 20 children and adults with epilepsy reporting decrease in the number of seizures [137]. However, fasting and other diets were employed for the treatment of epilepsy since the Hippocratic era [138].

    In 1922, Hugh Conklin, an osteopathic physician from Michigan, applied this diet to epileptic patients with encouraging results. Conklin believed that epilepsy was due to toxins that damage the brain and so he obliged his patients to a strict diet. In his papers, he wrote, “I restrict from my patients any kind of food except of water for as long as their physical condition allows it.” Conklin had a personal interest in ketogenic diet, since by this way he tried to cure his nephew, who suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy. Several papers have been published about the usefulness of ketogenic diet and the indications that will lead to the beginning of such a treatment [139, 140]. Further studies were published by Talbot [141], Helmholz [142], Lennox [143], and Bridge and Iob [144]. Charles Howland, a wealth New York lawyer, funded his brother John Howland to search whether there was a scientific basis for the success of the starvation treatment by which his epileptic son was treated [145, 146]. Dr. John Howland, Professor of paediatrics, John Hopkins Hospital, used this funding to create the first laboratory at the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children. John Howland Memorial Fund was established at John Hopkins Hospital and supported the research on the ketogenic diet [147]. Although multiple investigations have been performed, the anticonvulsive mechanisms of ketogenic diet remain unexplained. In the years to follow, many authors published articles with positive or negative results. Then, this therapy was forgotten for many years, since progress in pharmaceutical therapy was in the foreground. In the last 20–30 years, KD experienced a revival, especially in the Anglo-American world where it is established as a treatment option for therapy-resistant infantile epilepsy. Livingston [148], Hopkins and Lynch [149, 150], and Huttenlocher [151] were the advocates of this direction. The multitude of side effects and procedural problems however reduced the initial euphoria. Only as recently as 1996, the Institute Charlie (the institute was named by a father of a child with epilepsy which was treated with KD) educated the public about the benefit of KD, organized seminars and training courses, and published a book entitled The Epilepsy Diet Treatment: An Introduction to the Ketogenic Diet. More recently new versions of ketogenic diet such as the modified Atkins diet have been employed successfully for the treatment of children and adults with refractory epilepsy [152, 153] and are especially recommended in cases of pharmacologically intractable epilepsy.

    3.4. The Technique of Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    An important advance in epilepsy treatment was the development of the technique of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), especially for patients experiencing serious adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. VNS involves implantation of a programmable signal generator (neurocybernetic prosthesis NCP) in the chest cavity, and the stimulating electrodes carry electrical signals from the generator to the left vagus nerve [154].

    3.5. Complimentary Treatments for Epilepsy

    During the last two decades a series of alternative or complimentary therapies have emerged in the therapy of epilepsy. These include relaxation therapies such as massage, aromatherapy, reflexology and chiropractic therapy, holistic therapies such as herbal medicine (St. John’s Wort, evening primrose oil), homeopathy, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine (herbal remedies plus acupuncture), traditional and psychological therapies such as autogenic training, neurofeedback, and other psychological therapies, and music therapy. Although some of those therapies seem to have an effect, most of them are considered as complementary therapies and more studies are needed in order to establish their therapeutic effect and their usefulness in everyday clinical practice [155]. Recent studies have pinpointed the use of cannabidiol and medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy [156].

    4. The Evolution of Thoughts around Epilepsy: Society and Science Cooperate for the Good of Epileptic Patients

    Just before the turn of the twentieth century, in 1898, William Pryor Letchworth (1823–1910), a businessman devoted to charities, and Frederick Peterson (1859–1938), an eminent American neurologist and Professor of neurology, Columbia University, organized the first National Association for the Study of Epilepsy and the Care and Treatment of Epileptics in the USA and the Craig Colony in Sonyea, the first comprehensive public epilepsy center, along with other eminent physicians such as Roswell Park (1852–1914), Professor of surgery, University of Buffalo Medical School, and a surgeon, Buffalo General Hospital, William P. Spratling (1863–1915), American neurologist, known for his studies in epilepsy, and Frederick Munson [157, 158]. William Spartling introduced for the first time the term “epileptologist” for a physician specializing in epilepsy.

    During World War I, Pearce Bailey organised the systematic examination of military recruits creating a database with epidemiological data on epilepsy. The same year is considered to be the founding year of the American Epilepsy Society (AES) in commemoration of a joint meeting focusing on epilepsy organised by the Association for the Research in Nervous and Mental Disease (ARNMD) and the American League Against Epilepsy (ALAE). The proceedings of this meeting recapitulated the state of the art on epilepsy research and stimulated further research [159]. The first president of AES was Dr. Charles Dair Aring (1904–1998), a renowned American neurologist and pioneer in medical education in the USA.

    The beginning of the 1950s was marked by the establishment by the US congress and the American Academy of Neurology of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness (NINDB), now known as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The main purpose of this institute was to study and treat the neurological and psychiatric casualties of World War II under the direction of Bailey. Bailey recruited in his team Maitland Baldwin (1918–1970), a famous American neurosurgeon, as the Chief of surgical neurology, Bethesda, Donald Bayley Tower (1919–2007), in 1953, as the Chief of the section on clinical neurochemistry, and Cosimo Ajmone-Marsan (1918–2004), as the Head of the electroencephalography branch in 1954. As a result of their cooperation, a treatise on temporal lobe epilepsy was published [160].

    During the 1960s, in 1961, the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) was established as an organisation of laypersons and professionals interested in the medical and nonmedical aspects of epilepsy (http://www.ibe-epilepsy.org). In 1962, the US Public Health Service Surgeon General created the Neurological and Sensory Disease Control Program (NSDCP) supporting research on epilepsy in various ways. In 1965, Anthony Joseph Celebrezze (1941–2003), Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, organized a meeting for the expansion of epilepsy research and services. As a result of it, in 1966, Surgeon General William Stewart (1921–2008) created the Surgeon General’s Public Health Service Advisory Committee on the Epilepsies, whereas, in 1969, the Society for Neuroscience was established. Stewart created two subcommittees: one with David Daily entitled Service Training Subcommittee with Terrance Capistrant and James Cereghino as Executive Secretaries and a second one with Arthur Ward entitled Research Training Subcommittee with William Caveness and J. Kiffin Penry as Executive Secretaries [65].

    In 1970, a classification of epilepsies was proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy [161]. This classification was revised several times through the last decades, in order to clarify terms and meanings and to avoid any confusion towards the understanding of epilepsy. In 1975, the US Commission for the Control of Epilepsy and its Consequences was established under the direction of Dr. Richard H. Masland and Dr. David Daly, creating a plan for nation-wide action on epilepsy.

    During the last two decades, epileptics are being evaluated psychologically and socially and, before 1990, quality of life tools were developed. In 1981, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) published the first classification of epilepsies which were discussed extensively and revised in 1989 [162–164] the classification and terminology for epileptic seizures and syndromes provided a fundamental instrument for diagnosing, organizing, and differentiating the epilepsies.

    During the 1990s, the decade of the brain, WHO in collaboration with ILAE and IBE launched the Global Campaign Against Epilepsy in 1997, in order to bring epilepsy out of the shadows and to further improve diagnosis, treatment, prevention and social acceptability. In 1993, the ILAE defined fever seizures as the seizures occurring in childhood after the age of 1 month, usually between 3 months and 6 years old, associated with a febrile illness, not caused by an infection of central nervous system (CNS), without previous neonatal or unprovoked seizure, and not meeting criteria for other acute symptomatic seizures [165]. In 2001, the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology under Engel proposed a diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy [166] which was also supported in 2006 by the ILAE Classification Core Group [167]. ILAE’s classification of epilepsies and convulsive disorders was extensively discussed and new classification was suggested but not implemented since 2010 when ILAE published a new classification [168, 169].

    5. The Contribution of Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis of Epilepsy

    After the end of World War I, Dandy (1886–1946), an American neurosurgeon, described in 1918 and 1919, pneumoventriculography and pneumoencephalography [170–172], the first imaging techniques of the brain with the use of X-rays. For his discovery, he was nominated by Hans Christian Jacobaeus for the Nobel Prize in 1933. In the field of imaging, it was not until 1972 when computerized tomography (CT) was invented by the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield (1919–2004), EMI Laboratories, UK, and by the South African physicist Allan MacLeod Cormack (1924–1998), Tufts University, Massachusetts [173]. The use of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose for determination of local cerebral localization began in 1977 [174, 175].

    During the last decades great steps have been taken to the diagnostic approach of epilepsy by the use of neuroimaging. Techniques as magnetic resonance tomography (MRI), SPECT, and PET contributed to the diagnosis of pathological areas of the brain, such as tumors, cortical/subcortical dysgeneses, inflammation, strokes, vascular dysplasia, and posttraumatic insult. Newer imaging techniques in the diagnosis of epilepsy include functional MRI [176] (fMRI), clinical proton MR spectroscopy [177], and magnetoencephalography (MEG) [178].

    6. Genetics in Epilepsy

    The first connection between heredity and epilepsy was made in 1903 by Lundborg (1868–1943), a Swedish physician, notorious for his views on eugenics and racial hygiene, who published his research on the genetics of progressive myoclonic epilepsy first described by Heinrich Unverricht in 1891 (1853–1912) [179] his analysis was pioneering since he was able to trace back the disease in the family since the 18th century. In that way, Lundborg was also a pioneer in the study of human genetics.

    The concept of eugenics became an issue in the control of epilepsy during the 1930s in 1936, the American Neurological Association Committee for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilization published a report [180] stating that sterilization of epileptics should be voluntary and conducted under supervision and only with patient consent.

    The most important evolution, however, in the field of the genetics of epilepsy, took place during the last twenty years in 1989, Leppert was the first to identify the link between chromosome 20 and idiopathic human epilepsy syndrome in a family with benign familial neonatal convulsions [181]. Epilepsy still remains a field of active research, occupying different medical specialties. The growing evidence on the connection between various genes and epilepsies is the cutting edge of modern epilepsy research, and in the next decades new exciting discoveries are going to change epileptology [182]. Recently, in 2011, Engel published the identification of reliable biomarkers which would greatly facilitate differential diagnosis, eliminate the current trial-and-error approach to pharmacotherapy, facilitate presurgical evaluation, and greatly improve the cost-effectiveness of drug discovery and clinical trials of agents designed to treat, prevent, and cure epilepsy [167].

    7. Conclusions

    The fascinating history of epilepsy is connected with the history of humanity early reports on epilepsy go back to the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian texts, scanning a period of almost 4,000 years. The first hallmark in the history of epilepsy is the Hippocratic texts which set in doubt the divine origin of the disease. Major advances in the understanding of epilepsy came much later, during the 18th and 19th century theories on epilepsy during this period are formulated on a solid scientific basis and epileptics are for the first time treated as patients and not as lunatics or possessed. During this period, experimental studies were conducted and advances made in the pathology of the disease and the connection of epilepsy with various psychiatric symptoms. The work of John Hughlings Jackson was preceded by a plethora of studies by Dutch, German, English, and French physicians who evolved scientific thought and performed thorough studies on epilepsy. The advent of the 20th century led to the in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of the disease, the development of effective drugs, and neuroimaging methods. Last but not least, one should mention the important advances in the molecular biology of the disease and the connection of various genes with various forms of epilepsy.

    Conflict of Interests

    The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


    1. E. Magiorkinis, K. Sidiropoulou, and A. Diamantis, “Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy: epilepsy in antiquity,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 103–108, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    2. Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease, vol. 2, Loeb Classical Library and Harvard University Press, London, UK, 1965, translated by W. H. S. Jones.
    3. K. Sidiropoulou, A. Diamantis, and E. Magiorkinis, “Hallmarks in 18th- and 19th-century epilepsy research,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 151–161, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    4. A. Diamantis, K. Sidiropoulou, and E. Magiorkinis, “Epilepsy during the middle ages, the renaissance and the enlightenment,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 257, no. 5, pp. 691–698, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    5. J. G. F. Maisonneuve, Recherches et observations sur l'épilepsie, presentພs a L'ಜole de m󩷬ine de Paris, Paris, France, 1803.
    6. L. F. Calmeil, De l' epilepsie etudiee sous le rapport de son siege et de son influence sur la production de l' alienation mentale [Thesis], Imprimerie de Didot le jeune, Paris, France, 1824.
    7. G. Fritsch and E. Hitzig, “Ueber die elektrische Erregbarkeit des Grosshirns,” Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicin, vol. 37, pp. 300–332, 1870. View at: Google Scholar
    8. V. S. Wong and S. Y. Tan, “Santiago ramón y cajal (1852�): pride of petilla,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 683–684, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
    9. W. R. Gowers, The Borderland Of Epilepsy: Faints, Vagal Attacks, Vertigo, Migraine, Sleep Symptoms, and Their Treatment, P. Blakiston's Son & Co, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1903.
    10. H. H. Dale, “The action of certain esters and ethers of choline and their relation to muscarine,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 6, pp. 147–190, 1914. View at: Google Scholar
    11. O. Loewi, “�r humorale ﲾrtragbarkeit der herznervenwirkung,” Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, vol. 189, pp. 239–242, 1921. View at: Google Scholar
    12. O. Loewi, “�r humorale �rtragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung. II. Mitteilung,” Pflügers Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere, vol. 193, pp. 201–213, 1921. View at: Google Scholar
    13. O. Loewi and E. Navratil, “�r humorale �rtragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung: X. Mitteilung. �r das Schicksal des Vagusstoffs,” Pflüger's Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 678–688, 1926. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    14. W. Lennox and S. Cobb, Epilepsy from the Standpoint of Physiology and Treatment. Medicine Monograph XIV, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 1928.
    15. W. Lennox and S. Cobb, Epilepsy, Wiiliams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1928.
    16. W. Lennox and S. Cobb, “The relation of certain physicochemical processes to epileptiform seizures,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 85, pp. 837–847, 1929. View at: Google Scholar
    17. H. Klüver and P. C. Bucy, “Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 606–620, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
    18. H. Jasper and J. Kershmann, “Electroencepahlografic classification of the epilepsies,” Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 903–943, 1941. View at: Google Scholar
    19. G. Moruzzi and H. W. Magoun, “Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 1, no. 1𠄴, pp. 455–473, 1949. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    20. D. B. Lindsley, J. W. Bowden, and H. W. Magoun, “Effect upon the EEG of acute injury to the brain stem activating system,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 1, no. 1𠄴, pp. 475–486, 1949. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    21. T. E. Starzl, C. W. Taylor, and H. W. Magoun, “Ascending conduction in reticular activating system, with special reference to the diencephalon,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 461–477, 1951. View at: Google Scholar
    22. G. D. Dawson, “Investigations on a patient subject to myoclonic seizures after sensory,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 141–162, 1947. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    23. E. Roberts and S. Frankel, “Gamma-Aminobutyric acid in brain: its formation from glutamic acid,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 1950. View at: Google Scholar
    24. J. C. Eccles, R. Schmidt, and W. D. Willis, “Pharmacological studies on presynaptic inhibition,” The Journal of physiology, vol. 168, pp. 500–530, 1963. View at: Google Scholar
    25. J. C. Eccles, The Physiology of Synapses, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1964.
    26. E. R. Kandel and W. A. Spencer, “Electrophysiological properties of an archicortical neuron,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 94, pp. 570–603, 1961. View at: Google Scholar
    27. E. R. Kandel and L. Tauc, “Mechanism of prolonged heterosynaptic facilitation,” Nature, vol. 202, no. 4928, pp. 145–147, 1964. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    28. E. R. Kandel and L. Tauc, “Anomalous rectification in the metacerebral giant cells and its consequences for synaptic transmission,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 287–304, 1966. View at: Google Scholar
    29. E. J. Speckmann and H. Caspers, “Shifts of cortical standing potential in hypoxia and asphyxia,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 379, 1967. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    30. E. Speckman and H. Caspers, “Shifts in the cortical potentials during changes in the ventilation rate,” Pflügers Archiv, vol. 310, pp. 235–250, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
    31. D. P. Purpura, “Analysis of axodendritic synaptic organizations in immature cerebral cortex,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 94, pp. 604–654, 1961. View at: Google Scholar
    32. D. P. Purpura, “Functional organization of neurons,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 109, pp. 505–535, 1963. View at: Google Scholar
    33. D. P. Purpura and H. Waelsch, “Brain reflexes,” Science, vol. 143, no. 3606, pp. 598–604, 1964. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    34. E. M. Housepian and D. P. Purpura, “Electrophysiological studies of subcortical-cortical relations in man,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 1963. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    35. J. B. Brierley, A. W. Brown, B. J. Excell, and B. S. Meldrum, “Alterations in somatosensory evoked potentials and cerebral cortical damage produced by profound arterial hypotension in the Rhesus monkey,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 113P–114P, 1968. View at: Google Scholar
    36. B. S. Meldrum and J. B. Brierley, “Brain damage in the rhesus monkey resulting from profound arterial hypotension. II. Changes in the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the neocortex,” Brain Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 101–118, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
    37. J. B. Brierley, A. W. Brown, B. J. Excell, and B. S. Meldrum, “Brain damage in the rhesus monkey resulting from profound arterial hypotension. I. Its nature, distribution and general physiological correlates,” Brain Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 68–100, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
    38. J. B. Brierley, B. S. Meldrum, and A. W. Brown, “The threshold and neuropathology of cerebral 𠇊noxic ischemic” cell change,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 367–374, 1973. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    39. H. Gastaut, “Classification of the epilepsies. Proposal for an international classification,” Epilepsia, vol. 10, pp. 14–21, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
    40. H. Gastaut, “Clinical and electroencephalographical classification of epileptic seizures,” Epilepsia, vol. 10, pp. 2–13, 1969. View at: Google Scholar
    41. J. K. Penry, R. J. Porter, and F. E. Dreifuss, “Simultaneous recording of absence seizures with video tape and electroencephalography. A study of 374 seizures in 48 patients,” Brain, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 427–440, 1975. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    42. P. A. Schwartzkroin and D. A. Prince, “Cellular and field potential properties of epileptogenic hippocampal slices,” Brain Research, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 117–130, 1978. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    43. R. K. S. Wong and D. A. Prince, “Participation of calcium spikes during intrinsic burst firing in hippocampal neurons,” Brain Research, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 385–390, 1978. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    44. R. K. S. Wong and D. A. Prince, “Afterpotential generation in hippocampal pyramidal cells,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 86–97, 1981. View at: Google Scholar
    45. B. S. Meldrum and R. W. Horton, “Cerebral functional effects of 2-deoxy D-glucose and 3-O-methylglucose in rhesus monkeys,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 1973. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    46. B. S. Meldrum and R. W. Horton, “Physiology of status epilepticus in primates,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1973. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    47. B. S. Meldrum, R. A. Vigourous, and J. B. Brierley, “Systemic factors and epileptic brain damage: prolonged seizures in paralyzed, artificially ventilated baboons,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 82–87, 1973. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    48. C. R. Houser, J. E. Miyashiro, B. E. Swartz, G. O. Walsh, J. R. Rich, and A. V. Delgado-Escueta, “Altered patterns of dynorphin immunoreactivity suggest mossy fiber reorganization in human hippocampal epilepsy,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 267–282, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
    49. T. Sutula, H. Xiao-Xian, J. Cavazos, and G. Scott, “Synaptic reorganization in the hippocampus induced by abnormal functional activity,” Science, vol. 239, no. 4844, pp. 1147–1150, 1988. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    50. T. Sutula, G. Cascino, J. Cavazos, I. Parada, and L. Ramirez, “Mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the epileptic human temporal lobe,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 321–330, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    51. D. L. Tauck and J. V. Nadler, “Evidence of functional mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampal formation of kainic acid-treated rats,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1016–1022, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
    52. R. Caton, “The electric currents of the brain,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, p. 278, 1875. View at: Google Scholar
    53. A. Beck, “Die Bestimmung der Localisationder Gehirn-und R࿌kenmarksfunctionen vermittelst der elektrischen Ersch einungen,” Zentralblatt für Physiologie, vol. 4, pp. 473–476, 1890. View at: Google Scholar
    54. P. Kaufman, “Electric phenomena in cerebral cortex,” Obz Psichiatr Nev Eksp Psikhol, vol. 7𠄹, p. 403, 1912. View at: Google Scholar
    55. V. Pravdich-Neminsky, “Ein Versuch der Registrierung der elektrischen Gehirnerscheinungen,” Zentralblatt für Physiologie, vol. 27, pp. 951–960, 1913. View at: Google Scholar
    56. N. Cybulski and X. Jelenska-Macieszyna, “Action currents of the cerebral cortex,” Bulletin of the Academy of Science Krakov, pp. 776–781, 1914. View at: Google Scholar
    57. H. Berger, “�r das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 527–570, 1929. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    58. E. D. Adrian and B. H. C. Matthews, “The berger rhythm: potential changes from the occipital lobes in man,” Brain, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 355–385, 1934. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    59. H. Berger, “Uber das Elektroenzephalogram des Menschen,” Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 97, pp. 6–26, 1932. View at: Google Scholar
    60. H. Berger, “Uber das Elektroenzephalogram des Menschen,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 100, pp. 301–320, 1933. View at: Google Scholar
    61. F. Gibbs, H. Davis, and W. Lennox, “The electroencephalogram in epilepsy and in conditions of impaired consciousness,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1133–1148, 1935. View at: Google Scholar
    62. F. Gibbs, W. Lennox, and E. Gibbs, “The electroencephalogram in diagnosis and in localization of epileptic seizures,” Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1225–1235, 1936. View at: Google Scholar
    63. F. A. Gibbs, E. L. Gibbs, and W. G. Lennox, “Epilepsy: a paroxysmal cerebral dysrhythmia,” Brain, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 377–388, 1937. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    64. F. A. Gibbs and E. Gibbs, Atlas of Electroencephalography, Boston City Hospital, Oxford, UK, 1941.
    65. J. J. Cereghino, “The major advances in epilepsy in the 20th century and what we can expect (hope for) in the future,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 351–357, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    66. R. Naquet, “Henri gastaut (1915�),” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 231–235, 1996. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    67. R. Naquet, “Tribute to Henri Gastaut (1915�),” Neurophysiologie Clinique, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 170–176, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
    68. H. Gastaut, “L'épilepsie photogénique,” La Revue du Praticien, vol. 1, pp. 105–109, 1951. View at: Google Scholar
    69. F. A. Gibbs, E. L. Gibbs, and W. G. Lennox, “Influence of blood sugar level on the wave and spike formation in petit mal epilepsy,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 41, pp. 1111–1116, 1939. View at: Google Scholar
    70. H. Gastaut, M. Vigoroux, C. Trevisan et al., “Le syndrome “hémiconvulsion-hémiplégie-épilepsie (syndrome HHE),” Revue Neurologique, vol. 97, pp. 37–52, 1957. View at: Google Scholar
    71. H. Gastaut and J. Corriol, “Preliminary notes on a new procedure especially effective in intermittent luminous stimulation,” Revue Neurologique, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 583–585, 1950. View at: Google Scholar
    72. H. Gastaut, H. Terzian, R. Naquet, and K. Luschnat, “Correlations between automatism in temporal crises and electroencephalographic phenomena which accompany them,” Revue Neurologique, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 678–682, 1952. View at: Google Scholar
    73. H. Gastaut and Y. Gastaut, “Electroencephalographic and clinical study of anoxic convulsions in children. Their location within the group of infantile convulsions and their differenciation from epilepsy,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 607–620, 1958. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    74. K. Andermann, S. Berman, P. M. Cooke et al., “Self-induced epilepsy. A collection of self-induced epilepsy cases compared with some other photoconvulsive cases,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 6, pp. 49–65, 1962. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    75. H. Gastaut, F. Poirier, H. Payan, G. Salamon, M. Toga, and M. Vigouroux, “H.H.E. syndrome hemiconvulsions, hemiplegia, epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 1, no. 1𠄵, pp. 418–447, 1959. View at: Google Scholar
    76. H. Matsumoto and C. A. Marsan, “Cortical cellular phenomena in experimental epilepsy: ictal manifestations,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 305–326, 1964. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    77. H. Matsumoto and C. A. Marsan, “Cortical cellular phenomena in experimental epilepsy: interictal manifestations,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 286–304, 1964. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    78. D. A. Prince and K. J. Futamachi, “Intracellular recordings in chronic focal epilepsy,” Brain Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 681–684, 1968. View at: Google Scholar
    79. D. A. Prince, “The depolarization shift in 𠇞pileptic“ neurons,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 467–485, 1968. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    80. D. A. Prince, “Inhibition in 𠇎pileptic” neurons,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 307–321, 1968. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    81. M. A. Falconer, “The significance of mesial temporal sclerosis (Ammon's horn sclerosis) in epilepsy,” Guy”s Hospital Reports, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1968. View at: Google Scholar
    82. E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and J. H. Steinbach, “The extracellular patch clamp: a method for resolving currents through individual open channels in biological membranes,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 1978. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    83. E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and J. H. Steinbach, “The extracellular patch clamp: a method for resolving currents through individual open channels in biological membranes,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 1978. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    84. A. Stefani, F. Spadoni, and G. Bernardi, “Voltage-activated calcium channels: targets of antiepileptic drug therapy?” Epilepsia, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 959–965, 1997. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    85. D. M. Long, “Harvey cushing at johns hopkins,” Neurosurgery, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 983–989, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    86. G. Hildebrandt, W. Surbeck, and M. N. Stienen, “Emil Theodor Kocher: the first Swiss neurosurgeon,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 154, no. 6, pp. 1105–1115, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    87. S. V. Horsley, “Brain surgery,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, pp. 670–675, 1886. View at: Google Scholar
    88. F. Krause, Surgery of the Brain and Spinal Cord-Based on Personal Experiences, vol. 3, Rebman, New York, NY, USA, 1912.
    89. O. Foerster, “Zur operativen Behandlung der Epilepsie,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde, vol. 89, no. 1𠄳, pp. 137–147, 1926. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    90. W. E. Dandy, “Removal of right cerebral hemisphere for certain tumors with hemiplegia,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 90, pp. 823–825, 1928. View at: Google Scholar
    91. B. P. Hermann and J. L. Stone, “A historical review of the epilepsy surgery program at the University of Illinois Medical Center: the contributions of Bailey, Gibbs, and Collaborators to the refinement of anterior temporal lobectomy,” Journal of Epilepsy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 155–163, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    92. W. Penfield and H. H. Jasper, “Heighest level seizures,” Research Publications-Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 26, p. 252, 1947. View at: Google Scholar
    93. W. Penfield and H. Jasper, Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of the Human Brain, Little, Brown, Boston, Mass, USA, 1954.
    94. W. Penfield and H. Steelman, “The treatment of focal epilepsy by cortical excision,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 740–762, 1947. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    95. W. Penfield and H. Flanigin, “Surgical therapy of temporal lobe seizures,” A. M. A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 491–500, 1950. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    96. W. Penfield and M. Baldwin, “Temporal lobe seizures and the technic of subtotal temporal lobectomy,” Annals of surgery, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 625–634, 1952. View at: Google Scholar
    97. W. P. van Wagenen and R. Y. Herren, “Surgical division of commisural pathways in the corpus callosum. Relation to spread of an epileptic attack,” Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol. 44, pp. 740–759, 1940. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    98. P. Bailey and F. A. Gibbs, “The surgical treatment of psychomotor epilepsy,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 365–370, 1951. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    99. K. G. Mckenzie, “The present status of a patient who had the right cerebral hemisphere removed,” Proceedings of the American Medical Association, vol. 111, p. 168, 1938. View at: Google Scholar
    100. R. A. Krynauw, “Infantile hemiplegia treated by removing one cerebral hemisphere,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 243–267, 1950. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    101. M. A. Falconer, D. A. Pond, A. Meyer et al., “Temporal lobe epilepsy with personality and behaviour disorders caused by an unusual calcifying lesion report of two cases in children relieved by temporal lobectomy,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 234–244, 1953. View at: Google Scholar
    102. J. H. Margerison and J. A. N. Corsellis, “Epilepsy and the temporal lobes: a clinical, electroencephalographic and neuropathological study of the brain in epilepsy, with particular reference to the temporal lobes,” Brain, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 499–530, 1966. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    103. W. Sommer, “Erkrankung des Ammonshorns als aetiologisches Moment der Epilepsie,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 631–675, 1880. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    104. P. Niemeyer, “The transventricular amygdalohippocampectomy,” in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, M. Baldwin and P. Bailey, Eds., pp. 565–581, Raven Press, 1958. View at: Google Scholar
    105. J. Tailarach, M. David, P. Tournoux et al., Atlas d'Anatomie Stéréotactique des Noyaux Gris Centraux, Masson, Paris, France, 1957.
    106. P. Chauvel, Contributions of Jean Tailarach and Jean Bancaud to Epilepsy Surgery, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2001.
    107. J. E. Bogen and P. J. Vogel, “Treatment of Generalized Seizures by Cerebral Commissurotomy,” Surgical Forum, vol. 14, pp. 431–433, 1963. View at: Google Scholar
    108. H. H. White, “Cerebral hemispherectomy in the treatment of infantile hemiplegia review of the literature and report of two cases,” Confinia Neurologica, vol. 21, pp. 1–50, 1961. View at: Google Scholar
    109. H. G. Wieser and M. G. Yasargil, “Selective amygdalohippocampectomy as a surgical treatment of mesiobasal limbic epilepsy,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 445–457, 1982. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    110. C. Locock, “Analysis of fifty-two cases of epilepsy observed by the author,” The Lancet, vol. 70, pp. 527–529, 1857. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    111. A. Hauptmann, “Luminal bei Epilepsie,” Munchen Med Wochenschr, vol. 59, pp. 1907–1909, 1912. View at: Google Scholar
    112. H. Merrit and T. Putnam, “A new series of anticonvulsant drugs tested by experiments in animals,” Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1003–1015, 1938. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    113. H. Merrit and T. Putnam, “Sodium diphenyl hydantoinate in the treatment of convulsive disorders,” JAMA, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 1068–1073, 1938. View at: Google Scholar
    114. H. Merrit and T. Putnam, “Sodium diphenyl hydantoinate in the treatment of convulsive seizures. Toxic symptoms and their prevention,” Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1053–1058, 1939. View at: Google Scholar
    115. H. Merrit and T. Putnam, “Further experiences with the use of sodium diphenyl hydantoinate in the treatment of convulsive disorders,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1023–1027, 1940. View at: Google Scholar
    116. R. K. Richards and G. M. Everett, “Tridione: a new anticonvulsant drug,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1330–1336, 1946. View at: Google Scholar
    117. W. Schindler and H. Blattner, “�r derivative des iminodibenzyls Iminostilben-Derivative,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 562–753, 1961. View at: Google Scholar
    118. R. Vossen, “Uber die antikonvulsive Wirking von Succinimiden,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 83, pp. 1227–1230, 1958. View at: Google Scholar
    119. H. Meunier, G. Carraz, Y. Meunier et al., “Propriétés pharmacodynamiques de l'acide n-dipropylacetique,” Therapie, vol. 18, pp. 435–438, 1963. View at: Google Scholar
    120. F. Buchtal and O. Svensmark, “Aspects of the pharmacology of phenytoin (dilantin) and phenobarbital relevant to their dosage in the treatment of epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 1, pp. 373–384, 1960. View at: Google Scholar
    121. S. Blom, “Trigeminal neuralgia: its treatment with a new anticonvulsant drug (G-32883),” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7234, pp. 839–840, 1962. View at: Google Scholar
    122. M. Bonduelle, P. Bouygues, B. Jolivet et al., “Automatisms of long duration and epileptic fugues in adults,” Annales Mຝico-Psychologiques, vol. 122, pp. 169–174, 1964. View at: Google Scholar
    123. M. Lorge, “Klinische Erfahrungen mit einem neuen Antiepilepticum, Tegretol (G 32 883) mit besonderer Wirkung auf die epileptische Wesenveränderung,” Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 93, pp. 1042–1047, 1963. View at: Google Scholar
    124. E. J. Fertig and R. H. Mattson, “Mattson: carbamazepine,” in Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook, J. Engel and T. A. Pedley, Eds., pp. 1543–1556, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
    125. S. D. Shorvon, “Drug treatment of epilepsy in the century of the ILAE: the second 50 years, 1959�,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, supplement 3, pp. 93–130, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    126. P. J. Loiseau, “Clinical experience with new antiepileptic drugs: antiepileptic drugs in Europe,” Epilepsia, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. S3–S8, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
    127. D. M. Woodbury, J. K. Penry, and R. P. Schmidt, Antiepileptic Drugs, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 1972.
    128. M. J. Painter, C. Pippenger, H. MacDonald, and W. Pitlick, “Phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin levels in neonates with seizures,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 315–319, 1978. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    129. C. Elger, P. Halász, J. Maia, L. Almeida, and P. Soares-Da-Silva, “Efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive treatment in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 454–463, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    130. A. Hufnagel, E. Ben-Menachem, A. A. Gabbai, A. Falcão, L. Almeida, and P. Soares-da-Silva, “Long-term safety and efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults with epilepsy: results of a 1-year open-label extension study,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 103, no. 2-3, pp. 262–269, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    131. A. Gil-Nagel, C. Elger, E. Ben-Menachem et al., “Efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on treatment in patients with focal-onset seizures: integrated analysis of pooled data from double-blind phase III clinical studies,” Epilepsia, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 98–107, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    132. A. Gil-Nagel, J. Lopes-Lima, L. Almeida, J. Maia, and P. Soares-Da-Silva, “Efficacy and safety of 800 and 1200 mg eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive treatment in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 281–287, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    133. M. J. Brodie, H. Lerche, A. Gil-Nagel et al., “Efficacy and safety of adjunctive ezogabine (retigabine) in refractory partial epilepsy,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 20, pp. 1817–1824, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    134. M. J. Brodie, J. A. French, S. A. Mcdonald et al., “Adjunctive use of ezogabine/retigabine with either traditional sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or AEDs with other mechanisms of action: evaluation of efficacy and tolerability,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 989–994, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
    135. V. Biton, A. Gil-Nagel, M. J. Brodie, S. E. Derossett, and V. Nohria, “Safety and tolerability of different titration rates of retigabine (ezogabine) in patients with partial-onset seizures,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 107, no. 1-2, pp. 138–145, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
    136. A. Gil-Nagel, M. J. Brodie, R. Leroy et al., “Safety and efficacy of ezogabine (retigabine) in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures: interim results from two ongoing open-label studies,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 102, no. 1-2, pp. 117–121, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    137. G. Guelpa and A. Marie, “La lutte contrel epilepsie parlade's intoxication et par la re education alimentaire,” Revue de Therapie Medico-Chirurgicale, vol. 18, pp. 8–13, 1911. View at: Google Scholar
    138. Hippocrates, J. Chadwick, and W. N. Mann, Eds., The Sacred Disease, Blackwell, 1950.
    139. M. G. Peterman, “The ketogenic diet in epilepsy,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 84, no. 26, pp. 1979–1983, 1925. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    140. P. R. Huttenlocher, A. J. Wilbourn, and J. M. Signore, “Medium-chain triglycerides as a therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy,” Neurology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1097–1103, 1971. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    141. F. B. Talbot, “The ketogenic diet in epilepsy,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 401–408, 1927. View at: Google Scholar
    142. H. F. Helmholz, “The treatment of epilepsy in childhood: five years' experience with the ketogenic diet,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 88, pp. 218–225, 1927. View at: Google Scholar
    143. W. G. Lennox, “Ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 199, pp. 74–75, 1928. View at: Google Scholar
    144. E. M. Bridge and L. V. Iob, “The mechanism of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy,” Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp, vol. 48, pp. 373–389, 1931. View at: Google Scholar
    145. H. W. Welch, F. J. Goodnow, S. Flexner et al., “Memorial meeting for Dr. John Howland,” Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, vol. 41, pp. 311–321, 1927. View at: Google Scholar
    146. T. D. Swink, E. P. Vining, and J. M. Freeman, “The ketogenic diet: 1997,” Advances in Pediatrics, vol. 44, pp. 297–329, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
    147. L. Wilkins, “Epilepsy in childhood. III. Results with the ketogenic diet,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 341–357, 1937. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    148. S. Livingston, “The ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy in children,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 333–336, 1951. View at: Google Scholar
    149. I. J. Hopkins and B. C. Lynch, “Use of ketogenic diet in epilepsy in childhood,” Australian Paediatric Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1970. View at: Google Scholar
    150. I. J. Hopkins and B. C. Lynch, “Use of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy in childhood,” Proceedings of the Australian Association of Neurologists, vol. 7, pp. 25–30, 1970. View at: Google Scholar
    151. P. R. Huttenlocher, “Ketonemia and seizures: metabolic and anticonvulsant effects of two ketogenic diets in childhood epilepsy,” Pediatric Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 536–540, 1976. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    152. E. H. Kossoff, B. J. Henry, and M. C. Cervenka, “Transitioning pediatric patients receiving ketogenic diets for epilepsy into adulthood,” Seizure, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 487–489, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    153. M. M. Vaccarezza, M. V. Toma, J. D. R. Guevara et al., “Treatment of refractory epilepsy with the modified Atkins diet,” Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 348–351, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
    154. S. C. Schachter and C. B. Saper, “Vagus nerve stimulation,” Epilepsia, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 677–686, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    155. V. Ricotti and N. Delanty, “Use of complementary and alternative medicine in epilepsy,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 347–353, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    156. G. Mathern, A. Nehlig, and M. Sperling, “Cannabidiol and medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 781–782, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
    157. W. Letchworth, “Transactions of the National Association for the Study for the of Epilepsy at the Annual Meeting Held in Washington, DC, USA, May 14th and 15th, 1901,” CE Brinkworth, Buffalo, New York, 1901. View at: Google Scholar
    158. E. J. Fine, D. L. Fine, L. Sentz, and E. D. Soria, “Contributions of the founders of Craig Colony to epileptology and public care of epileptics: 1890�,” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 77–100, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    159. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, Ed., Epilepsy: Proceedings of the Association Held Jointly with the International League Against Epilepsy, Williams & Wilkins, 1946.
    160. M. Baldwin and P. Bailey, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1958.
    161. J. K. Merlis, “Proposal for an international classification of the epilepsies,” Epilepsia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 114–119, 1970. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    162. F. E. Dreifuss, J. Bancaud, and O. Henriksen, “Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures,” Epilepsia, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 489–501, 1981. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    163. “Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Commission on classification and terminology of the international league against epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 389–399, 1989. View at: Google Scholar
    164. F. E. Dreifuss, M. Martinez-Lage, and J. Roger, “Proposal for classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes,” Epilepsia, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 268–278, 1985. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    165. “Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 592–596, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
    166. Jr. Engel J., “Classification of epileptic disorders,” Epilepsia, vol. 42, no. 3, p. 316, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    167. J. Engel Jr., “Report of the ILAE classification core group,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1558–1568, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    168. A. T. Berg, S. F. Berkovic, M. J. Brodie et al., “Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005�,” Epilepsia, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 676–685, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    169. A. T. Berg and I. E. Scheffer, “New concepts in classification of the epilepsies: entering the 21st century,” Epilepsia, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1058–1062, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    170. W. E. Dandy, “Ventriculography following the injection of air into the cerebral ventricles,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 5–11, 1918. View at: Google Scholar
    171. W. E. Dandy, “Ventriculography following the injection of air into the cerebral ventricles,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 6, pp. 26–36, 1919. View at: Google Scholar
    172. W. E. Dandy, “Rontgenography of the brain after the injection of air into the spinal canal,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 397–403, 1919. View at: Google Scholar
    173. G. W. Friedland and B. D. Thurber, “The birth of CT,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 168, no. 6, p. 1622, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
    174. M. Reivich, D. Kuhl, and A. Wolf, “Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism in man with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 64, pp. 190–191, 1977. View at: Google Scholar
    175. M. Reivich, D. Kuhl, A. Wolf et al., “The [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization in man,” Circulation Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 127–137, 1979. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    176. J. S. Duncan and J. de Tisi, “MRI in the diagnosis and management of epileptomas,” Epilepsia, vol. 54, supplement 9, pp. 40–43, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
    177. G. Oz, J. R. Alger, P. B. Barker et al., “Clinical proton MR spectroscopy in central nervous system disorders,” Radiology, vol. 270, no. 3, pp. 658–679, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
    178. H. Kim, C. K. Chung, and H. Hwang, “Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy,” Korean Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 431–438, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    179. H. Lundborg, Die progressive Myoklonus-Epilepsy (Unverricht's Myoklonie), Almqvist & Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden, 1903.
    180. A. Myerson, J. Ayer, T. Putnam et al., Eugenical sterilization- a reorientation of the problem. By the Committee of the American Neurological Association for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilzation, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 1936.
    181. M. Leppert, V. E. Anderson, T. Quattlebaum et al., “Benign familial neonatal convulsions linked to genetic markers on chromosome 20,” Nature, vol. 337, no. 6208, pp. 647–648, 1989. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
    182. S. Baulac and M. Baulac, “Advances on the genetics of Mendelian idiopathic epilepsies,” Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 911–929, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar


    Copyright © 2014 Emmanouil Magiorkinis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Watch the video: #4 Α Παγκόσμιος Πόλεμος: Η Μεγάλη Εξόρμησις ιστορία (December 2021).